, Volume: 13( 6)
Food Safety Knowledge and Hygiene Practice of Street Vendors in Mekong River Delta Region
- Nguyen Phuoc Minh Faculty of Food Technology-Biotech, Dong A University, Da Nang City, Vietnam
Tel: +82 51-200-6114; E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: December 11, 2017 Accepted Date: December 22, 2017 Published Date: December 26, 2017
Citation: Minh NP. Food Safety Knowledge and Hygiene Practice of Street Vendors in Mekong River Delta Region. Biotechnol Ind J. 2017;13(6):156
Street food vending is a common feature of most cities and towns in developing countries. Hygienic conditions are frequently not ideal, and may result in microbial contamination and foodborne diseases. Our research focused on evaluation of food safety knowledge and hygiene practice of street vendors in Mekong river delta region, Vietnam. Our results showed that only 54.4% of street vendors reaching the food safety condition. Meanwhile, the infrastructure with 67.9% and document with 73.1% were recorded. Most of street vendors had knowledge of food safety with 73.0%. Whereas, group of food selection and preservation ability acquired with 83.5%; group of general knowledge about food safety acquired with 55.8%. Regarding to handling, street vendors had hygiene practice with 98.5%, the maid had 98.5% and personal hygiene had the lowest percentage with 33.1%.
Food safety; knowledge; Hygiene practice; Street vendor; Mekong delta region
Street food trading solves major social and economic problems in developing countries through the provision of ready-made meals at relatively inexpensive prices and employment for teeming rural and urban populace along its value chain . Street food vending activities in most developing countries are mostly outside the regulation and protection of the governments. The economic importance of the activities is not well appreciated due to the informal nature of the enterprise and lack of official data on volume of trade involved . Hiemstra et al.  also mentioned the significant contribution of microbusinesses made up largely of street food sector to the economy of Vietnam. These activities have been reported to pose serious concerns over the safety of the practitioners, especially the health of the consumers .
There were several studies mentioned to food safety of street vendor. A survey on food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors from a representative urban university campus in Quezon City, Philippines was done . Samapundo et al.  determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of vendors and consumers of street food in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. In general, consumers and vendors exhibited average food safety knowledge and attitude levels. Gender, training, level of education and location did not have a significant effect (p<0.05) on the level of food safety knowledge of the consumers. Vendors were determined to have higher levels of food safety knowledge than consumers, whilst trained vendors had better food safety knowledge and attitudes compared to untrained vendors. The majority of vendors and consumers were aware of the importance of washing hands and proper cleaning with regards to the prevention of foodborne diseases. Muyanja et al.  investigated 225 street food vendors to assess risk factors, practices and knowledge with respect to food safety and hygiene. Mobile food vendors in Bronx County, NY were interviewed . Majority of vendors (75% of those responding) felt most comfortable speaking Spanish; 5% preferred other non-English languages. Nearly a third of vendors changed selling locations (streets, neighborhoods, boroughs) day-to-day or even within a given day. Fiona H. McKay et al.  investigated the hygienic practices of food vendors and the context of their socioeconomic and living circumstances. Structured interviews were conducted with 31 street food vendors in Patna, India. The interviews explored issues around vending, hygiene practices, planning, and financial stability. Findings from this study indicate that food vendors are aware of good basic hygiene practices despite having low levels of literacy, low incomes, and limited job security. Cortese  assessed the compliance of street foods sold in an urban center in a major capital of Brazil with international standards for food safety and to provide data that could be used for the elaboration of specific legislation to ensure the safety of street food. Asiegbu et al.  conducted a survey of the food safety knowledge and microbial hazards awareness of consumers of ready-to-eat street-vended food. The objective of this study was to determine the food safety knowledge based on microbial hazard awareness of street food consumers in the Johannesburg municipality, South Africa. Kothe et al.  evaluated the microbiological quality and sanitary conditions of hot dog vendors of Southern Brazil. Results demonstrated that 75% of the hot dogs were contaminated with total coliforms, 30% of them presented fecal coliforms while 25% coagulase-positive staphylococci levels above the maximum limit permitted by Brazilian regulations.
Our surveillance focused on investigation of food safety knowledge and hygiene practice of street vendors in Mekong river delta region, Vietnam. It’s believed that this study would contribute the important data for the governmental agencies in policy planning.
Materials and Methods
We focused on a survey of food safety condition by street vendors located in the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Samples were the street vendors (SVs) via interview. Total of 340 and 1040 street vendors were selected for this surveillance (knowledge and hygiene practice as equivalent).
Method of sampling: We carried out the observation of food safety condition and personal hygiene of street vendors. A master check list was also prepared to interview some general information, knowledge and hygiene practice of street vendors (SVs). Cross-sectional assessment of food street vendors through direct observations and brief interviews was conducted.
Statistical analysis: After receiving raw data, we continued doing the statistical analysis via SPSS software to perform the descriptive analysis by frequency.
Results and Discussion
Food safety condition of street vendor trollies (SVTs)
From Table 1, we noticed that the scale of supplying meal under 200 units accounted for 81.5% and over 200 units accounted for 17.6%. Regarding to type of street vendor business, the company accounted for 11.8% and private household accounted for 82.2%. Meanwhile, the SVs having the food safety approval accounted for 54.4%.
|1||Scale of street vendor business||Below 200 meals||277||81.5|
|≥ 200 meals||62||18.2|
|2||Type of business||Company||43||12.6|
|3||License of food safety approval||Yes||185||54.4|
Table 1. General information street vendor trollies (n=340).
From Table 2, we saw the SVTs having dustbin, cooking table, hand wash basin, dish wash basin with 100% acceptance. Among other criteria, they ranged from 70.3% to 99.4%.
|Location of street vendor trollies (SVTs)||297||87.4|
|Structure and arrangement of SVTs||239||70.3|
|Material of SVTs||302||88.8|
|Surrounding environmental hygiene||311||91.5|
|Hand wash basin||239||70.3|
|Dish wash basin||302||88.8|
Table 2. Food safety condition of street vendor trollies (n=340).
From Table 3, we realized that 100% of variables were acquired the food hygiene requirement.
|Food processing utensil||340||100|
|Appropriated utensil to store clean raw material||340||100|
|Barrel to store clean water||340||100|
|Utensil of cuisine: Cup, bowl, dish, spoon, chop stick||340||100|
Table 3. Hygiene condition of cooking utensil (n=340).
From Table 4, we saw that 100% of SVTs meeting the food safety requirement regarding to raw food material. Other criteria such as water source, equipment for preservation and food additives for preservation reached 96.5% to 97.9% of acceptance.
|Raw food material||340||100.0|
|Equipment for preservation||331||97.4|
|Food additives for preservation||333||97.9|
Table 4. Hygiene condition in food production and preservation (n=340).
From Table 5, we noticed the document record met 74.1% of acceptance. Meanwhile the contract of raw food supplier reached 70.3% of acceptance.
|Document record to track the raw food origin and sample keeping in 24 hours||252||74.1|
|Contract of raw food supplier||239||70.3|
Table 5. Document record (n=340).
From Table 6, we noticed that 99.1% of the SVTs having the equipment and tool suited for food safety. Other criteria such as infrastructure, hygiene condition in production and preservation, document records were reached 67.9%, 90.0% and 56.5% in equivalent (Figure 1).
|No||Food safety condition||Acceptance|
|2||Equipment and tool||337||99.1|
|3||Hygiene condition in production and preservation||306||90.0|
Table 6. General evaluation about food safety condition of the SVTs (n=340).
From the summary of 4 criteria of food safety in SVTs, we realized that ratio of SVTs acquired the food safety requirement was 56%, and non-acceptance was 44%.
Knowledge and hygiene practice of street vendors
General information: There were 1040 street vendors in this research. From Table 7, we clearly noticed that 70.8% of street vendors over 40 years old; 29.2% of street vendors below 40 years old; 3.1% of male; 96.9% of female; 64.6% of street vendors educated over junior high school; 50.2% of trainning for food processing skill; 51.3% of processing time with more than 5 years; 55.6% of street vendors having food safety trainning with more than 2 times.
|1||Age (age group)||≤ 40||304||29.2|
|3||Education||≤ Junior high school||368||35.4|
|>Junior high school||672||64.6|
|4||Food processing skill||Training||522||50.2|
|5||Food processing time||≤ 5 years||496||47.7|
|6||Food safety training||<2 times||462||44.4|
|≥ 2 times||578||55.6|
Table 7. General information of the street vendors (n=1040).
Knowledge about food safety of street vendors
From Table 8, we noted that the general knowledge of food safety was accepted for 56%.
|1||Concept of food safety||983||94.5|
|2||Reason of contaminated food||897||86.3|
|3||Effect of contaminated food||134||12.9|
|4||Knowledge about the reason of contaminated food||457||43.9|
|5||Insect harmful to food||644||61.9|
|6||Critical control point||922||88.7|
|7||Reason caused the contaminated food (n=920)||638||61.3|
|Evaluation on general knowledge about food safety of street vendors||582||56.0|
Table 8. General knowledge about food safety of street vendors (n=1040).
From Table 9, we noticed the percentage of street vendors having knowledge of food selection and preservation was quite high (83.5%).
|1||Available information on packaged product label||294||28.3|
|2||Way of fresh meat selection||695||66.8|
|3||Way of fresh fish selection||562||54.0|
|4||Way of fresh egg selection||968||93.1|
|5||Way of fresh vegetable selection||1040||100.0|
|6||Way of food preservation in refrigerator||1026||98.7|
|7||Way to treat with left food||1040||100.0|
|8||Duration of food usage||1014||97.5|
|Evaluation about food selection and preservation of street vendors||868||83.5|
Table 9. Knowledge about food selection and preservation of street vendors (n=1040).
From Table 10, we noticed the percentage of street vendors having awareness of the governmental regulation on food safety was rather high (74.3%) (Figure 2).
|1||No infectious disease of street vendors||344||33.1|
|2||Way to treat the infectious disease||1015||97.6|
|3||Duration of food keeping||968||93.1|
|4||Location for announcement of food poisonous case||987||94.9|
|5||Food samples, infectious samples should be kept in case of food poison.||785||75.5|
|6||Regulated document about food safety||466||44.8|
|Evaluation on the awareness of the governmental regulation on food safety of street vendor||773||74.3|
Table 10. Knowledge of governmental regulation about food safety of the street vendor (n=1040).
After summarizing variables of knowledge including 21 variables, we realized that numbers of accepted answers about food safety about 73.0%.
Hygiene practice about food safety of the street vendors
From Table 11, we recognized that personal hygiene practice of street vendors was quite low (33.1%).
|1||Costumes during processing and catering||508||48.8|
|2||Training course about food safety||812||78.1|
|Evaluation about personal hygiene of street vendor||344||33.1|
Table 11. Personal hygiene practice of the street vendors (n=1040).
From Table 12, we saw the percentage of food safety practice of street vendors was rather high (95.4%).
|1||Processing flow chart||923||88.8|
|2||Way of vegetable washing||1040||100.0|
|3||Way of using frozen foodstuff||975||93.8|
|4||Location for food primary treatment||988||95.0|
|5||Document record for food reception||1014||97.5|
|Evaluation about food safety practice of street vendors||992||95.4|
Table 12. Food safety practice of street vendors (n=1040).
From Table 13, our result showed that percentage of hygiene practice of food preservation was rather high (98.5%).
|1||Way to keep cooked food||1017||97.8|
|3||Way of using tool for food distribution||1040||100.0|
|4||Way to keep food for age group||1040||100.0|
|5||Using of food scraps for next day||1040||100.0|
|6||Way to treat food scraps||1040||100.0|
|8||Location for food keeping (n=990)||982||94.4|
|Evaluation about hygiene practice of food preservation||1020||98.5|
Table 13. Food hygiene practice about food preservation of street vendors (n=1040).
From Table 14, percentage of hygiene practice of street vendors was 98.5% (Figure 3).
|3||Time of garbage disposal||1018||97.9|
|Evaluation about hygiene practice of kitchen cleaning, garbage of street vendors||1024||98.5|
Table 14. Hygiene practice about kitchen cleaning, garbage of street vendors (n=1040).
After summarizing 24 variables of hygiene practice, we decided that percentage of acceptance would be 72%.
Controlling and ensuring the safety of street-vended foods in many countries is a challenge considering that these foods are often less expensive and readily available. We successfully established an investigation about food safety of street vendors in Mekong river delta, Vietnam. Regarding the knowledge, we divided it into three groups (general awareness, food selection and preservation, governmental regulation). In respect of hygiene practice, we divided it into four groups (personal hygiene, production, preservation, kitchen and garbage cleaning). All data were summarized by the descriptive analysis with frequency, percentage of each group.
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