In biology, a mutation
is an alteration within the nucleotide sequence of the genome
of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA. Viral genomes are often of either DNA or RNA. Mutations result from errors during DNA replication, mitosis, and meiosis or other sorts of damage to DNA (such as pyrimidine dimers which will be caused by exposure to radiation or carcinogens), which then may undergo error-prone repair (especially microhomology-mediated end joining) or cause a mistake during other sorts of repair alternatively may cause a mistake during replication
(translesion synthesis). Mutations can also result from insertion or deletion of segments of DNA thanks to mobile genetic elements. Innovation in its modern meaning is "a new idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in sort of device or method". Innovation is usually also viewed because the application of higher solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs. Such innovation takes place through the supply of more-effective products, processes, services, technologies, or business
models that are made available to markets, governments and society. An innovation are some things original and simpler and, as a consequence, new, that "breaks into" the market or society. Innovation is said to, but not an equivalent as, invention, as innovation is more apt to involve the sensible implementation of an invention (ie new / improved ability) to form a meaningful impact within the market or society, and not all innovations require an invention. Innovation often [quantify] manifests itself via the engineering process, when the matter being solved is of a technical or scientific nature. The other of innovation is exnovation.
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