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Opinion Review

, Volume: 18( 8)

Biogas Fermenters of Various Types


When constructing a biogas plant, it is critical to select the appropriate biogas fermenter. An oval container is the best solution from a fluid and structural standpoint. This design, however, is relatively expensive, and it is typically limited to large sewage treatment facilities. The Chinese fixed dome design has a similar shape but is less expensive. The hemispherical CAMARTEC design is optimized for structural strength but does not make the best use of the necessary drilling. A cylinder with conical top and bottom is a simplified version of such a digester design. They are much easier to construct, and some are available as off-the-shelf units.


Biogas Fermenters, Pollution, Temperature


A cylinder with conical top and bottom is a simplified version of such a digester design. They are much easier to construct, and some are available as off-the-shelf units.

Their disadvantage is due to their low surface area-to-volume ratio. The cylinder's height should be the same as its diameter. Flattened bottles are extremely popular on farms because they are frequently a less expensive solution for small-scale bio methane production. Because rectangular parallelepiped fermenters are commonly used in batch feed systems, which are primarily used for solids fermentation, fluid dynamics are unimportant.

Small Fermenter Types

Biogas plant with a fixed dome:The fixed dome system is made up of a closed dome-shaped cooking surface can with a rigid gas holder that cannot be moved and a replacement shaft, also known as an expansion tank The gas is kept at the fermenter's top. The liquid fertilizer is pushed into the expansion tank when gas production begins. Gas pressure rises in proportion to the amount of gas stored, i.e. the difference in height between the two sludge levels. If the gas in the tank is low, so is the gas pressure.

Plant with floating drums: An underground fermenter and a movable gas holder comprise the floating drum system. The gas holder floats directly on the surface of the water. fermentation suspension or a separate water jacket The gas is collected in a gas drum, which rises and falls in proportion to the amount of gas stored

Polyethylene tube fermenter at a low cost: The Low Cost Polyethylene Tube Stove model is made up of a tubular polyethylene sheet (two layers of 300 microns) wrapped in recycled inner tube rubber bands and bent around a 6 inch PVC drainage pipe increase.

Plants in earth pits: Unlike laterite, masonry fermenters are not always composed of brittle soils. It is enough to line the holes with tape to stop penetration. Excavation covered in a thin layer of cement (plastered excavation wall with a wire mesh). A masonry ring that serves as both a reinforcement for the pit's edge and an anchor for the gas holder is attached to it. Metal or plastic foil can be used to make gas containers. In order to counteract buoyancy, a plastic sheet must be fixed to a square wooden frame that extends into the fertilizer. By adding weight to the gas tank, the necessary gas pressure is attained. Liquid fertilizer is discharged through the overflow point on the surrounding wall.

Ferro cement plant: Both an earth pit support and a self-supporting shell can be constructed using the ferro-cement design. Typically, the container is cylindrical. Systems with volumes under 6 m can be pre-manufactured. Similar to the fixed dome system, iron cement gas tanks call for unique sealing techniques (the reliability is proven by gluing aluminum foil).

Types of industrial fermenters

A few fictitious designs that are similar to those in Europe have been chosen to provide an overview. All of the common components of contemporary biogas technology are represented in the design at least once. It is customary in Europe for all designs to be on the ground.

There are, nonetheless, structures below ground.

Blending pits: Depending on the type of underlying soil, vary in size and shape. It has a propeller for chopping and/or mixing the substrate, and it frequently has a pump for transferring the substrate to the fermenter. In order to prevent temperature shocks in the fermenter, the substrate is occasionally also preheated in the mixing pit.

Digestion or fermentation: Insulated and made of steel or concrete, a digester. The large fermenter has an elongated channel shape to improve substrate flow.

Large fermenters are typically powered by infused biogas or slowly rotating blades and rotors. Two or more different fermenters are used by co-fermenters. In a fermenter with a flexible cover, the gas can be collected. Another option is to completely fill the fermenter and store the gas in another gas tank.

Holder for gas: The material used to make gas holders is typically flexible, so keep the outside elements off of it. It can be positioned in another "gas bag" or directly above the board to function as a balloon plant.

Slurry depot: To keep liquid fertilizer warm during the winter. The store can either be closed and connected to a gas tank to capture any remaining gas production, or it can be open like a conventional open slurry store. Normally, stores are only stirred up before fertilizing the fields; they are not heated.

95% of the time, a thermal power plant in Europe uses gas to generate heat for homes, grids, greenhouses, farms, and other uses. The ability to use any combination of gas and fossil fuels to produce the necessary energy is a benefit of thermal power plants. As a result, it might respond if energy demand is high but gas production is low, or the other way around

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