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Fundamentals of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Design Techniques

Author(s): Amelia Hawking

Nanomedicine is a field of medicine that employs nanoscale materials, such as biocompatible nanoparticles and nanorobots, for a variety of applications in living organisms, including detection, processing, visual, and actuation. Drugs with very low solubility have a variety of biopharmaceutical distribution problems, including reduced bioaccess after oral ingestion, lower diffusion potential into the outer membrane, higher intravenous dosage requirements, and undesirable side effects prior to the conventional formulated vaccine method. Many of these drawbacks, however, could be solved by incorporating nanotechnology into the drug delivery system. Because of its possible benefits, such as the ability to alter properties like solubility, drug release profiles, diffusivity, bioavailability, and immunogenicity, drug design at the nanoscale has been extensively studied and is by far the most mature technique in the field of nanoparticle applications. As a result, more efficient administration routes can be created, as well as lower toxicity, less side effects, better biodistribution, and a longer drug life cycle. Engineered drug delivery systems are either tailored to a specific location or are designed to activate therapeutic agents in a managed manner at a specific location. Their development requires self-assembly, in which building blocks randomly shape well-defined configurations or patterns. They must also conquer obstacles such as opsonization/sequestration by the mononuclear phagocyte cell.

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