Original Article
Environ Sci Ind J, Volume: 12( 10)

The COP 22 in Marrakech – Morocco and Climate Change: The Challenge of Environmental Protection

*Correspondence:
El Hour S , Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment and Quality, Faculty of Science, Ibntofail University, PO Box 133, 14000, Kenitra, Morocco, Tel: 212-537374052; E-mail: [email protected]

Received: October 04, 2016; Accepted: October 20, 2016; Published: October 26, 2016

Citation: El Hour S, Aouane M, Chaouch A. The COP 22 in Marrakech - Morocco and Climate Change: The Challenge of Environmental Protection. Environ Sci Ind J. 2016;12(10):116.

Abstract

The Conference of Parties is an annual conference on climate change and protecting the environment e under the aegis of the United Nations and which aims to address the issues of climate change. In November 2016, will be organized the COP 22 in Marrakech. After COP 21 in Paris, the heads of states and leaderships of the world therefore find in Marrakech in November 2016. The United Nations Climate Conference (COP) will themes mitigating the effects of climate change and adaptation in innovation, quite normal because the theme of environmental protection on the planet takes a particular interest, and in view of substantial damage to the planet, and the ecological and financial losses in flow. COP 22 will also have the mission to develop operational mechanisms in the Paris-Lima map then Paris-Marrakech. Lima considers itself as the COP negotiations, Paris is the decisions, but the COP 22, scheduled to Morocco, will be the Conference of the action. The objective of our scientific study is to conduct a study on measures designed to ensure environmental protection and the implementation of environmental regulations in the context of damage affecting the environment worldwide.

Keywords

Conference of parties (COP); Environmental protection; Environmental actions; Climate change

Introduction

Some use the term climate change to refer to all forms of climatic inconstancy, regardless of their statistical nature or physical causes. Also, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), who was established in 1988 with a mandate to provide assessment reports of state-of-the-art knowledge on the various aspects of a possible human-induced climate change [1], defines climate change broadly because of human activity. In contrast, the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), it is an environmental treaty that entered force on March 21, 1994, and has been updated many of times since [2], the (UNFCCC) (defines climate change as a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere, and that is in addition to natural climate variability over comparable time periods [3]. Therefore, nobody ignores the issue of climate change. Many of us can perceive its effects. Heat wave in the summer, winter without snow, climate disruption (no season), and climate change manifests itself in various forms. in the same setting changes in the level of pollution and the volume of offenses against the environment concerned international authorities, why the states have committed in recent decades to the development of a new strategy to fight against it, the proof is the number consisting of summits and conferences that tend to establish new human adaptation ways with its ecosystem for series of conference game.

The operation and the lack of management of nature and the environment are not new, they were committed for centuries. Environmental crimes as violence to nature are in close relations with economic crimes, because many of these crimes against the environment are committed by companies whose objective is profit.

Therefore, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, Rio De Janeiro; 1992). Held in June 1992, exactly 20 years after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment [4], confirmed the centrality of the environmental issues, the consequences are much more complex. The warming of the water and melting ice push up sea levels, which threatens many low islands and land, such as the Netherlands or Bangladesh.

The 21st century and may be the first to see the emergence of climate refugees. If the darkest predictions come true, archipelagic nations like the Maldives could be wiped off the map. The geopolitical consequences would be enormous. So, before talking about the Conference of Parties and the actions of environmental protection to international and regulatory steps that adorn it, it proves very essential to identify the convention, the regulatory and legislative field for the environmental protection against the risks of pollution and climate change.

Therefore, the terminology regulatory and legislative protection of the environment means all laws and judicial actions that have a connection with the activities related to the environment. Environmental protection emerged as a general public concern in the 1960s, although laws to counter specific local problems like urban air pollution can be found as early as the fourteenth century, when Edward I prohibited the burning of coal in open fumances in London. More recently, as knowledge has spread about trans-boundary and global environmental problems, the public have begun seeking widespread preventive and remedial action to ensure that natural conditions remain conducive to life and to human well-being [5].

Therefore, what are the main actions to ensure the environmental protection on a global scale. Is there a genuine environmental protection internationally through the implementation of legislation on damage affecting the environment globally? And finally, can we make a critical assessment of the failure of action for the protection of the environment?

Conventions and Regulatory Environment Protection Plan

Legislative protection of the marine environment and natural resources

The environmental protection internationally governed and managed by abundant legislative provisions ranging from simple bilateral or regional agreements with enforceable agreements with most countries, so that some lawyers Environmental Law qualify this last as a conventional law.

Before the 80s, and before the Conference of Parties, most environmental conventions related to the preservation of wildlife, but after that date we see the sensitivity of international leader’s vis-à-vis the threats to the international environment as a whole. This awareness began with the adoption of the first international conventions on oil pollution, especially with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil (OILPOL), 1954, as amended in the 60s.

Legislative protection of the marine environment

Statutory protection of the marine environment is organized by a range international convention and agreements, the arsenal the most important among them is the Montego Bay Convention of 1982 Law of the Sea. This agreement provides a general framework for the regulation issues of marine environment, including discharges from ships and land-based pollution, and establishes certain general obligations concerning the protection of the marine environment.

The International Maritime Organization, (IMO) is the United Nations' specialized agency responsible for improving maritime safety and preventing pollution from ships, it has been the source of three major instruments that address issues of regulatory protection of marine environments in detail namely the International Convention on the preparation, if the intervention and cooperation of oil pollution in 1990 that created a global legal framework for the collaboration and assistance in case of major oil spills. Other International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, London, 1974; and the International Convention on Standards of Training of seafarers, certification and watch keeping, London, 1978.

Furthermore, the London Convention 1972 adopted a now common approach by listing the substances that can’t be discharged into the ocean and those who can’ be without a permit. The regulatory structure, which requires signatory states to enforce those obligations by all vessels loading in their ports or flying their flag in any place of the world, has gradually tightened its regime and the parties have now effectively ceased to dumping at sea of industrial waste.

On the legal protection of the marine environment at the regional, the regional seas program of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) is an extended line, although incomplete, treaty of protection of the seas. This plan covers: the Mediterranean (Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against the pollution).

Conservation of natural resources within the regulations

About the aspect of conservation of natural resources at the global level, it should be noted in particular the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural in 1972. UNESCO is unique as a global forum in connecting ethics, science and policy-making [6]. The Convention on International Trade in species wild fauna and flora threatened with extinction, Washington, 1973 and the Bonn Convention on the conservation of migratory species of wild animals, 1979. At the regional level, note the convention for the protection of the environment between Denmark Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1974, the Convention for the conservation of nature in the South Pacific in 1976, the Convention on the conservation of Wildlife and Natural Habitats in Europe Berne in 1979. And the treaties on Antarctica –area belonging to the common heritage of mankind and not under the jurisdiction of any State-including the Convention on the Conservation wildlife and marine life of Antarctica in Canberra, 1982.

For international jurisdiction in disputes on the protection of the marine environment from pollution and the preservation of natural resources, since 1993 the International Court of Justice has established a special chamber to the environment. There is also the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (based in Hamburg Germany), which is an independent judicial body established by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982 in Montego Bay. This taught organ and judge disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of this Convention.

The regulatory impact border management on environment

Under Principle 21 of the Stockholm Declaration States have a duty to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond national jurisdiction.

The impact border on the environment are always been a cornerstone in the adoption of international conventions on impact border air pollution Long-range protection of the Ozone layer, notification and cooperation in case of nuclear accident, impact border movements of hazardous wastes and global climate change.

Long-range air pollution in the world

Long-range air pollution in the world is a subject that has been discussed for the first time in Geneva in 1979 (Convention on Long-Range the impact border Air Pollution and its protocols). However, it is a framework agreement which aimed to limit and gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range the impact border air pollution.

Consequences of the impact border of nuclear accidents

The CHERNOBYL disaster in 1986 drew the public's attention on the impact border consequences of nuclear accidents, but previous conventions had already addressed several issues related to risks from nuclear devices, the liability convention in the field of civil nuclear energy, 1960, and the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage, 1963.

Note also the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, 1963. The 1980 Vienna convention on the physical protection of nuclear material had attempted to establish standards to protect nuclear material from several threats, including terrorism.

Protection of the ozone layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was signed in 1985, urges states to cooperate by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange to better understand and assess the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and the effects on human health and the environment through modification of the ozone layer. It also recommends to adopt appropriate legislative or administrative measures and harmonizing appropriate policies to control, limit, reduce or prevent human activities under their jurisdiction or control if it is found that these activities have or are likely have adverse effects because of the amendment, or modification likely to occur, the ozone layer.

The Vienna Convention was complemented by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, itself adapted and modified by the London meeting of 1990 and the Copenhagen meeting of November 1992.

The Results of the Climate Conference in Paris: COP 210 Paris

General context

The Conference of the Parties (COP) is a meeting of the Contracting Parties established in accordance with article 15 of the Convention. It is the governing body of the Convention. The United Nations, its specialized agencies, as well as any States Not Party to the Convention are also invited to participate as observers at meeting of the COP [7].

This year of 2016 is the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It brought together the 195 signatory countries of the Convention recognizing thus the need to fight against climate change. The COP 21 Paris has ensured a historic agreement committing all these countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases. This agreement aims to stabilize global warming caused by human activities on the surface of the Earth "significantly below" 2°C by 2100 compared to the temperature of the pre-industrial era and continue efforts to limiting global warming to 1.5°C.

Global emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide) [8] covered by the Kyoto Protocol reached almost 50 billion tons of CO2 equivalent in 2010 because of the doubling of the energy consumption in the world over this period. The vast majority of these emissions is linked to the burning of fossil fuels.

The COP 21 climate summit was the most publicized since Copenhagen in late 2009 (“COP 15”) who had failed to find an overall agreement extending the Kyoto Protocol.

The main objectives of the COP 21 Paris

In principle, each country was supposed to deliver its commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases to the United Nations before the end of October 2015. Ahead of the COP 21, the Climate Conference organizers had announced four key objectives to guide negotiations at Le Bourget:

• Maintaining an agreement committing 195 States present to keep the temperature increase below 2°C.

• The announcement of the national contributions (INDC for "Intended Nationally Determined Contributions"): each country was supposed to deliver its commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (usually 2025 or 2030) to the United Nations on October 31 2015. On this basis, the overall trajectory of warming was close to 3°C by 2100.

• Financing the fight against climate change: the means of financing should be specified and in particular the "Green Climate Fund" to help developing countries to make efforts to reduce GHG emissions.

• The presentation of concrete commitments of shares (“Agenda sustainable solutions”) implemented by non-governmental actors: companies, communities, NGOs, etc.

• The proportion of signatories, the ambition of the commitments, their structuring and / or binding should be the main criteria for judging the outcome of the conference

The main result of the Paris Agreement COP 21Paris

The aim of the agreement of the COP 21: The Paris agreement fixed a target of keeping the increase in global temperature "well below" 2°C by 2100 compared to pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase to 1, 5°C as demanded by the most vulnerable countries to climate change.

A review mechanism: A review mechanism to increase every 5 years of national commitments was set up. A review of the actions of each country must be made in 2023 and the country will revise upward their commitments in 2025, and every five years unless decided otherwise concluded at the next Climate Conference. A "Coalition for a high ambition", consisting of a hundred countries including the United States and Member States of the European Union, has announced that it wished to make a revised INDC in 2020.

The funding: The Paris agreement in itself covers the period after 2020 and it is preceded by decisions. It is within these decisions what tackled the sensitive issue of financing: the $ 100 billion a year funding from developed to developing countries should form a "floor" from 2020. A revision increase such funding is envisaged for 2025.

The Paris agreement is open for signature from 22 April 2016 for a period of one year. It was signed on 22 April in New York by 175 countries. To enter into force in 2020, this agreement shall have been ratified, accepted or approved by 55 Parties to the minimum accounting for at least 55% of global emissions of greenhouse gases.

Therefore, encourage the conferences of parties, become no just simple meeting but and requirements, to multilateral environmental conventions to support the establishment of programmatic interlinkages between the programmed of work of their conventions and the United Nation Environment Programme [9].

After COP 21 Paris: The head of the Presidency of COP 21 Mrs. Ségolène Royal will help Morocco prepare for COP 22 to be held in Marrakech. In 2010, 22.7% of global greenhouse gas emissions came from China, 15.6% of US and 10.9% of the current European Union to 28.

More than 40,000 people attended the COP 21 for two weeks at Le Bourget 20,000 people participating in official negotiations in the "blue zone" and 20,000 in an area dedicated to the civil society (Figure 1). The global warming potential (GWP) compares the contribution of different greenhouse gas to global warming over a given period. It follows a period of 20 years and over 100 years.

environmental-science-Hollande-leadership

Figure 1: François Hollande leadership of COP 21 and the king Mohammed V leadership of COP 22.

The COP 22 in Marrakech and the Protection of Nature and the Ecosystem for the Survival of Humanity

The atmosphere is one of the most vulnerable elements of the ecosystem. American scientist Carl Sagan liked to compare the atmospheric layer to "a layer of varnish on a globe. It is so fine that human activity affects its composition. "

Solar radiation heats the Earth, in the form of light waves. The infrared rays are absorbed by the oceans to 90%. They are reflected by the Arctic sea ice 90%. Part of the radiation is retained in the atmospheric layer because of a high concentration of greenhouse gases.

Human emissions of greenhouse gases mainly include carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 They represent a "shield", which blocks some solar radiation and causes global warming. Since the pre-industrialization, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases due to human activities. Since 1880 the surface temperature of the globe has increased an average of 0.85°C. Sea levels rose by an average of 19 cm.

During the past year, the measures taken around the globe have shown, at certain periods of abnormally high temperatures.

Renewable energies

The definition of renewable energy differs both in the academic debate as well as among countries [10]. The most important differences in the definition between countries exist over the question whether large hydro power plants and biomass from waste should be included in the definition of renewable energy [11].

The International Energy Agency defines renewable energy as an energy that is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly or indirectly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth [10]. Consequently, the IEA classifies energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydropower and ocean resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources as renewable energies [12].

One of the great hopes of the fight against the emission of greenhouse gases, the development of renewable energy, using the force of the wind, sun and tides. If the development of these renewable energies were already an imperative given the depletion of fossil fuels, global warming has given new impetus to the search.

Solar energy: Solar energy is described as renewable and/or sustainable because it will be available as long as the sun continues to shine, the solar energy can be utilized directly by two technologies: namely solar thermal and solar photovoltaic. Solar thermal systems provide thermal energy for various processes [13], so it can be of 2 types, thermal or photovoltaic. With thermal energy, it captures heat from the sun (via a panel), mainly to heat the water of a water heater, or local.

Photovoltaic systems can be built in virtually any size, ranging from milliwatt to megawatt, and the systems are modular, i.e., more panels can be easily added to increase output. Photovoltaic systems are highly reliable and require little maintenance. They can also be set up as stand-alone systems [14].Therefore, photovoltaic panels convert solar energy into electricity. They are effective, of course, in regions enjoying a large sunshine. This technology tends to democratize while its effectiveness continues to grow.

There are number of advantages of solar energy as:

• Solar energy is diffuse in nature and provides low grade heat. This characteristic of solar energy is good for drying at low temperature, high flow rates with low temperature rise.

• The intermittent nature of solar radiation will not affect the drying performance at low temperature. Even the energy stored in the product itself will help in removing excess moisture during the period of no nun shine

• Solar energy is available at the site of use and saves transportation cost

• The high capital cost of solar dryers can be compensated if the dryer is used for drying other products also or at least is put to other such as space heating, etc. [15].

Wind energy: Wind energy is derived from the uneven heating of the earth's surface because more that input at the equator triggers the accompanying transfer of the water and thermal energy by exportation and precipitation. In this sense, rivers and dams that produce hydro energy are solar energy storage. Another major aspect of solar energy is the conversion of solar energy into biomass by photosynthesis [16]. The wind turbines contain windmills, these windmills, instead of grinding grain, convert the energy of the wind into electricity, and are very effective in coastal and offshore areas prone to strong winds. Some criticize the (noise pollution and / or visual).

Hydraulic energy: Hydraulic energy becomes available by water flow between two places with a difference in altitude. Hydraulic turbines convert the gravitational potential energy in mechanical energy [17]. This is to recover the force generated by the currents of water to turn it into electricity. There are many applications:Hydraulic energy becomes available by water flow between two places with a difference in altitude. Hydraulic turbines convert the gravitational potential energy in mechanical energy [17]. This is to recover the force generated by the currents of water to turn it into electricity. There are many applications:

• Tidal Energy: Tidal Energy is a kind of ocean energy resources. It is water potential energy which forms with tide rising and falling which caused by the earth's rotation and its attraction by the moon. Tidal energy is pollution-free and sustainable. Using tidal energy resource reasonably can not only reduce environmental pollution but also ease energy tense situation [18].

• Energies underwater currents: One source of underwater currents is pinch points, in which the tides cause higher than normal velocities, known as tidal streams [19].

• Thermal energy of the oceans: a very large area of sea is called an ocean. The water at the surface of an ocean gets heated by the heat of the sun and attains a higher temperature that the colder water at deeper levels in the ocean [20].

• Energy waves, the current of a river…

Biomass: Throughout human history biomass in all its forms has been the most important source of our basic needs, often summarized as the six "Fs": foods, feed, fuel, feedstock, fibre and fertilizer. Biomass products are also frequently a source of a seventh "F": finance [21]. Biomass includes all organic material (wood, plants, animal droppings, etc.) can be converted to an energy source, for example by burning or by obtaining methane by decomposition. To be useful, it is necessary that the energy cost of manufacture is less than its performance.

Geothermal energy: This is to extract heat present in the soil in depth for the purpose of heating or power transformation. Geothermal energy is a clean energy source that is available 24 hours a day. The average geothermal power plant produces electricity 90% of the time, compared with 65%-75% for coal and nuclear-powered plants [22].

Nuclear energy: If nuclear power is the problem of radioactive waste disposal and the Chernobyl accident is always present in our memories to remind us of its dangers, the fact remains that this method of power generation produces no CO2. The ideal would be to do without the medium term and to replace it with other production methods, but for now these technologies are not effective enough.

As soon as a renewal of nuclear energy will take place on a large enough scale, fast neutron reactors will again come to the forefront, because of their remarkable and unique capability of breeding nuclear fuel.

Correction of behavior and change bad habits

As far as climate change is mainly due to man, reducing the emission of greenhouse gases is priority number one. The solutions are many and do not necessarily pass through technological innovations or imposed laws by the legislature. Laziness and ignorance, we have developed many habits that need to change.

Change our bad habits: Energy waste is immense. The cheap electricity has contributed to the development of bad habits. Whether at the state level with the on-road lighting (sometimes in daylight), poorly insulated premises with excessive heating needs, or the private level.

Energy choice: We all make choices that have ecological implications. When choosing a diesel car or an electric car, an oil furnace, natural gas or electric heating.

Streamlining our consumption patterns: Globalization has had the effect of boosting world trade… with consequences that we imagine for the pollution generated by the transport of goods. This leads to absurd situations, when importing goods to hundreds or thousands of kilometers, whereas the same merchandise is available on site.

Power consumption: How many times do not do we leave the television on while nobody is watching, the lights on in rooms where no one is present? We use lots of not always useful electrical appliances (electric can opener). Some people still use standard bulbs while that low energy uses 5 times less energy.

Streamlining our movements: While rising oil, prices has significantly reduced the use of the car, we still tend to use it improperly. Obviously, it is not always possible to use public transportation or carpool, but we can all make efforts in this direction.

Conclusions

In December 2015, during the Paris Conference for Climate Change (COP 21), the 195 participating countries adopted the first global agreement on climate, a binding treaty that aims to limit global warming to below 2°C.

In 2016, while the COP 22 will be held in Marrakech, Morocco intends to take this opportunity to highlight its commitment to climate.

The COP 22 in Marrakech will then be considered a new breath and introduced major advances made and successfully in Paris, but we must still remember that we can’t be satisfied fully. The collective effort must be pursued and clarified concretely in an effective and efficient implementation.

The Paris Agreement - which will take effect if ratified on 22 April 2016, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions - is undoubtedly a sure bet and a historic breakthrough which establishes a collective will and universal. We must congratulate all the governments and the UN, who knew, beyond responding to skeptics and pessimists scoring history, create momentum and to consolidate the different proposals.

Following this Parisian stage and consecration of a worldwide commitment to our planet, the COP 22, to be held in Marrakech next November will be crucial in the implementation and monitoring of the Paris Agreement, including through the definition of tools and mechanisms to compel the parties to comply, from 2020, their Paris commitments. Morocco, under the guidance and leadership of His Majesty King Mohammed VI, has significant international credibility to take the relay and the torch of France, to realize and make viable the hopes born of the COP 21. Marrakech will stop the way, consolidate and ensure everyone the impression.

Finally, to save the planet, the heads of state and heads of companies around the world will have to mobilize. International agreements already signed, such as the Kyoto Protocol, and the efforts of multinationals are not up to the challenge. We must move as quickly from awareness to action, COP 21 and COP 22 Paris Marrakech are opportunities to recover and executed practical actions and reasonable.

References