In order to further enhance the reduction rate in engine-out smoke emissions, now a novel biodiesel named Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether Curcas OilMonoester has been developed in the laboratory. The fuel was synthesized with curcas oil and ethylene glycolmethyl ether, and the structure was identified through FT-IR and 1H NMR. Because this fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel, its oxygen content was higher. Engine test results showed that engine-out smoke emissionswere decreased by 73.0%ÂÂ92.9%, and NOx,COwere also lessened significantly. But unburned HC emissions generally had no noticeable change as compared to pure diesel fuel or mixture of the biodiesel and 0# diesel fuel. Physicochemical test also confirmed that the new biodiesel could be used as a substitute or additive for 0# diesel.With the increasingly stringent for vehicle exhaust pollution control in China, Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether Curcas Oil Monoester biodiesel should have exciting application prospects.