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, Volume: 17( 12)

Biotechnology's most recent breakthroughs

Alena Johnson*

Alena Johnson
Scientific editor, Medical journal, Ukraine

Received: December 01, 2021; Accepted: December 05, 2021; Published: December 19, 2021

Citation: Johnson A, Biotechnology's most recent breakthroughs. Biotechnol Ind J. 2021;17(12).




The use of immunohistochemical labelling in the diagnosis of aberrant cells, such as those found in malignant tumours, is common. Specific biological events, such as growth or cell death, are marked by specific molecular markers (apoptosis). Immunohistochemistry is also commonly employed in basic research to determine the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in various areas of a biological tissue.


Caspases are necessary for the proper functioning of a cell. Different model organisms could be used to better understand the function of human caspases. According to our findings, human executioner caspases, initiator caspases, and inflammatory caspases have varying degrees of connection with the model organisms. Based on the degree of sequence similarity, this study proposes that for human caspases-related studies, either Pan troglodytes or Felis catus should be chosen. This obviously shows that we should reconsider our investigations on Mus musculus, since it may not demonstrate the same level of connection, resulting in a decline in the efficacy of drugs designed for people but tested on mice.

DNA Cloning

Upstream initiator caspases are thought to be those with a lengthy prodomain. Within their prodomains, Casp 8 and 10 have two DED domains [4]. Caspase recruitment to death receptors is induced via homotypic contacts between DEDs of Caspases 8 and 10 and DEDs of the adapter protein FASAssociating Protein with Death Domain (FADD). CARD domain is found in Casp 1,4,9,2. These caspases' CARDs interact with adapter molecules that contain CARDs. The effector caspases are activated by these caspases. The prodomains of initiator apoptotic caspases and inflammatory caspases are similar. The prodomains of effector caspases are usually fewer than 30 amino acids long, whereas the prodomains of other caspases are frequently over 100 amino acids long. The prodomains of the short prodomains of Protein-protein interactions are unlikely to be mediated by executioner caspases. Instead, they appear to prevent caspase activity. Drosophila illness gene homologs demonstrate that 75% of human disease genes are structurally related to Drosophila genes, and more than a third of human genes are substantially linked to fruit fly genes [7]. Model organisms including the mouse, zebrafish, frog, and chicken appear to be relativistic in comparison to the human system. As a result, they can be utilised to conduct experiments in order to better understand the diseased state and, as a result, the appropriate treatment for it. At the nucleotide level, humans and chimps share 98 percent of significant matches. Protein-coding genes have been discovered to have a high level of association. Because of the structure of gene repetitions, the genetic comparison is not straightforward. Mutations (Chimpanzee Sequencing Consortium) (Chimpanzee Sequencing Consortium) (Chimpanzee Sequencing Consortium) Chimpanzees have two more chromosomes than humans, with 48 total. It's true. This is supposed to be because two pairs of chromosomes merged into a single pair in a human ancestor.

Awards Nomination

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Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 875

BioTechnology: An Indian Journal received 875 citations as per Google Scholar report

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