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Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) and Viruses

Author(s): Nikolas Brown

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were first discovered in the early 1940s, when Erwin Chargaff and Randolph West discovered that platelet-free plasma contains coagulation components that pellet when centrifuged at high speeds (31,000 g). Other researchers followed suit, including Peter Wolf's 1967 paper on "platelet dust" and Webber and Johnson's 1970 discovery that platelet alpha granules are connected with vesicles. These and other groundbreaking experiments lay the groundwork for the electric vehicle industry. EV is a generic designation for a heterogeneous collection of primarily circulating membranous vesicles, according to definition. Although the term EV encompasses subgroups including ectosomes, exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, oncosomes, and prostasomes, it is frequently used interchangeably in the area. All cell types from the three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya—release EVs. As a result, EVs play an important role in life, regulating biological processes such as intercellular communication, lateral/horizontal gene transfer, and response to stimuli and infectious agents like bacteria, fungus, parasites, and viruses.

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