Current understanding of coronavirus molecular biologyAuthor(s): Tina Guzman
The appearance of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China, was the third occurrence of a highly pathogenic coronavirus in the twenty-first century. Human activities and other factors have been connected to the ongoing spread of coronaviruses from natural hosts to people. The severity of this infection, as well as the lack of effective, licensed countermeasures, highlight the need for a more precise and comprehensive understanding of coronavirus molecular biology. Coronaviruses are huge, enclosed viruses having a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. Coronaviruses are currently recognized as one of the most rapidly evolving viruses due to their high rates of genomic nucleotide substitution and recombination. Coronaviruses use complicated mechanisms at the molecular level to achieve genome expression, viral particle assembly, and virion progeny release. Understanding the molecular biology of coronaviruses and regulating their spread has enormous consequences for global health and economic stability since the health concerns posed by coronaviruses are persistent and long-term. This paper is designed to provide an overview of our current basic knowledge of coronavirus molecular biology, which is critical for the development of coronavirus countermeasures.