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Assessment of the Levels of Toxic and Essential Metals in Fish, Water and Sediment Samples from Argungu River, Kebbi State

Author(s): Mohammed A. Zanna*, Mustapha LM, Faruk Usman, Muhammed Alkali, Yahuza M Sani, and Belo YK

This study deals with the quantification of some toxic and essential metals. Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Cd in the water, fish and sediment Samples collected from Jakara dam, Minjibir, Kano. The water samples were collected using 4 liter plastic container dipped below the surface at the designated points. The sediment samples were collected using stainless steel auger from five (5) points randomly taken and homogenize in clean plastic bucket and air dried then sieved using 2 mm mesh. The fish species tilapia, cat and lung fish were purchase from the fishermen at the dam site during each visit. The samples were individually digested using aqua regia at 100˚C for three hours. The results showed that tilapia, and cat fish have highest levels of essential metals while lung fish has highest levels of toxic metals. The water samples have the highest levels of metals than sediment. The water samples have metals concentration in this order 0.773 ± 0.546>0.0585 ± 0.0414>0.0364 ± 0.0257>0.0230 ± 0.0162>0.0126 ± 0.0089>0.0138 ± 0.0098 while sediment samples have metals concentration in this order 1454.16 ± 0.0411>966.66 ± 0.0227>674.72 ± 0.0190>576.66 ± 0.0163>187.07 ± 10.018>0.1233 ± 0.0087. In the gills of cat fish the concentration were in the order 7633.25 ± 0.145>966.67 ± 0.0195>606.67 ± 0.0313>378.32 ± 0.0151>352.5 ± 0.0871>341.67 ± 0.0051. Bones of cat fish have metals concentration in this order of 3050 ± 0.0643>785.82 ± 0.0224>339.17 ± 0.0135>0.305 ± 0.201>0.0386 ± 0.0156>0.0136 ± 0.0052. While flesh of cat fish have metals concentration in this order 6799.17 ± 0.137>1808.32 ± 0.0269>492.50 ± 0.145>473.32 ± 0.010>400 ± 0.0032>25.08 ± 0.0010. In tilapia fish gills metals concentration are in the order of 6822.5 ± 0.147>4108.32 ± 0.094>1800.32 ± 0.0621>668.32 ± 0.0267>590 ± 0.0175>400 ± 0.00670. The bones of tilapia fish have metals concentration in the order 8108.32 ± 0.168>2058.32 ± 0.0461>Pb>Mn>Ni>Cd while flesh have metals in the order of Zn>Cu>Mn>Pb>Ni>Cd. Lung fish have metals in the order of Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd>Pb> Ni. Tilapia and cat fish have highest levels of essential metals and which is good for human consumption and within the permissible heavy metals for human consumption set by FAO/WHO Recommendation were exceeded in the edible portions. All the elements are above FOA/WHO recommendation.

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