Polymeric biomaterials have a significant influence in today’s health care technology. Polymers were the first experimentally designed biomaterials for human use. Chitosan and alginate are two natural and easily available polymers that are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable and retain good antimicrobial activity. When combined, they exhibit desirable characteristics and can be created into a scaffold for cell culture. Scaffolds based on chitosan and alginate offer advantages over other polymers due to their non-toxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, favorable mechanical properties, and are shown to be suitable for cell ingrowth and reconstruction. In this article the design, synthesis and properties of chitosan-alginate scaffolds, and their use as biomaterials in tissue engineering are reviewed.