China's venture investment promotes development of new and high technology industrialization from the start. So far, there are many problems in theory has already formed the common understanding in the risk investment, such as the concept and function and external environment and conditions and the operation mechanism, but there are also many controversial issues. Part of the research from the Angle of new and high technology industrialization spread, which is easy to cause the microcosmic ignore economic interests, make the risk investment company operation deviates from the rational decision orbit, especially at present most of the risk investment institutions by the state under the condition of capital are more likely to have management idea mistake. This paper first introduces the artificial neural network model and theoretical basis. It introduced the theory and policy of risk investment and risk assessment. Characteristics and risk evaluation mainly includes the risk investment operation. Risk analysis and management of venture capital market in china. As well as the risk investment fund of China's investment in high-tech enterprise development strategy etc. BP neural network is applied to project investment risk evaluation. Contents of project investment risk evaluation index system, neural network method etc.. Application of simulation and test result and examples is use of MATLAB6.5 software programming.