How to promote the sustainable development of mining cities has become a major problem which has to be solved urgently. However, due to regional differences, the mining cities are different in their degrees of sustainable development. Therefore, it has become necessary to make efficiency evaluation and optimization for the degrees of the cities’ sustainable development. Currently there is less study on the efficiency evaluation of the sustainable development of the mining cities in China. In this paper, DEA method is used to research the efficiency evaluation and optimization of the sustainable development of the mining cities which is a supplement for the quantitative study in this field. This analysis and evaluation model overcomes the weakness of strong subjectivity of the commonly-used evaluation methods, therefore, the evaluation results are in accord with the practical situation of China.