At present, various kinds of electronic imaging equipment have emerged endlessly, and the means of image processing are also continuously updated. As a basic technological means of image processing, image segmentation impacts on the quality of image processing. Image segmentation algorithm has many types, people measure between the qualities of image segmentation and the time required to process, and then pick out the best. This paper has discussed three image segmentation algorithms in detail, those are image segmentation algorithm based on calculus of variations, image segmentation algorithm based on clustering methodology, and image segmentation algorithm based on genetic algorithm. Image segmentation steps of these three types are respectively represented and the effects of those are shown. Meanwhile, the goal programming theory knowledge can be used to compare among the OTSU image segmentation method, the basic genetic algorithm and IGA algorithm. The result of comparison shows that IGA algorithm is the most effective one, which is consistent with the experimental results.