Short communication, Volume: 17( 1)
Water Quality Assessment and Heavy Metal Detoxification via Bioremediation
Ananya Julka, Priti Gupta*
- Priti Gupta
Assistant Professor, Manav Rachna University, Faridabad, Haryana, India
Received Date: January 10, 2022; Manuscript No: tsic-22-60266; Editor Assigned Date: January 05, 2022; PreQC Id: P60266; Article Reviewed: Febrauary 01, 2022; QC No: Q-60266; Article Revised: January 15, 2022; Revised Manuscript No: R-60266; Accepted Date: January 25, 2022. DOI: 10.4172/tsic.2022.17(1).3
Water is quintessential for sustenance of life. But, industrialization, mining and overuse of pesticides has led to deterioration of water quality by release of large quantities of heavy metals in the ecosystem. Heavy metal accumulation in living systems beyond permissible levels can cause metal toxicity that poses serious risks to life. This is an alarming concern in developing nations like India. The methods to remove heavy metals from aqueous media can be grouped into two broad categories. The conventional methods fall under the physico-chemical approach. These methods can be carried out on a large scale but have their limitations. The other category which is the focus of this review explores biological methods used to remove heavy metals. This approach is called bioremediation. Bioremediation can involve various methods and can be grouped into phytoremediation (using plants) and microbial remediation (using microbes). This review describes some methods under bioremediation, mainly biosorption and bioaccumulation, and the differences between these methods. To improve the efficiency of these methods, some techniques have been discussed. These are immobilization and modifications of the cell wall. Further, case studies involving bioremediation and commercial applications of bioremediation have been touched upon. These are use of Gynura pseudochina (L.) as a hyperaccumulator plant and the use of Heliathanthus sp. for remediation of uranium rich soil. Scope for our experimentation is mentioned for further study in the area.
Rapid industrialization and anthropogenic activities such as the unmanaged use of agro-chemicals, fossil fuel burning and dumping of sewage sludge have caused soils and waterways to be severely contaminated with heavy metals. Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and persist in the environment. Hence, remediation is required to avoid heavy metal leaching or mobilization into environmental segments and to facilitate their extraction.Bioremediation employs microorganisms for removing heavy metals. Microorganisms have adopted different mechanisms for bioremediation. These mechanisms are unique in their specific requirements, advantages, and disadvantages, the success of which depends chiefly upon the kind of organisms and the contaminants involved in the process.Heavy metal pollution creates environmental stress for human beings, plants, animals and other organisms.
A complete understanding of the process and various alternatives for remediation at different steps is needed to ensure effective and economic processes. Heavy metal pollution creates environmental stress for human beings, plants, animals and other organisms. A complete understanding of the process and various alternatives for remediation at different steps is needed to ensure effective and economic processes. Heavy metal pollution occurs directly from industries (tannery, electroplating, dyeing, mining), agricultural fields, sewage sludge, and waste treatment plants. Recent studies have established that the long-term use of untreated wastewater from industrial sources can adversely affect water quality, making it unfit for human consumption. Untreated industrial wastewater is often colored, frothy, and contains hazardous chemicals including heavy metals, toxic dyes, acids, alkalis, and other toxic chemicals.4 The resulting pollution leads to hazardous impacts on the health of occupants/residents and occupational health hazards for workers. Keywords: Heavy metal, adsorption, bioremediation, phytoremediation, biosorption, bioaccumulation, heavy metal toxicity, water treatment, industrial effluent*
( *This work is partly presented at 19th World Congress on Nutrition and Food Chemistry, September 23-24, 2020)