tses, Volume: 13( 3)
Paper Mill Pollutants Reduction-Azolla pinnata
- Sivakumar D , Department of Civil Engineering, Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi 600 062, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Tel: 919790973774; E-mail: [email protected]
Received: May 03, 2017; Accepted: June 10, 2017; Published: June 14, 2017
Citation: Sivakumar D, Shankar D, Durai Arasu T, et al. Paper Mill Pollutants Reduction-Azolla pinnata. Environ Sci Ind J.2017;13(3):138.
In this present study, Azolla pinnata an aquatic plant was used to remove pollutants from effluent of paper mill. The constructed wetland study was conducted against dilution ratio, pH, and biomass of Azolla pinnata. The maximum percentage removal was found at the optimum dilution ratio of 6, pH of 8 and biomass 400 g for various parameters from the effluent of paper mill. The maximum removal percentage of 84.3%, 90.6% and 82.6% respectively for TDS, BOD, and COD from the effluent of paper mill. This study concluded that Azolla pinnata was successfully used for eradicating all properties from the effluent of paper mill.
The percentage reduction of TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent is low by Azolla pinnata at low biomass, and then increases with increased biomass.
The results indicated that at high biomass, the biomass is sufficient to remove the pollutants in a paper mill effluent than at low biomass, where biomass is not sufficient to sorb pollutants in a paper mill effluent.
For the biomass of 400 g, the maximum reduction was observed for all selected parameters, beyond which (for 500 g), there was no further reduction, as that of reduction observed for 400 g biomass. Hence, optimum biomass found in this study is 400 g and the maximum sorption removal percentage of 84.3%, 90.6% and 82.6% respectively was observed for TDS, BOD and COD from the effluent of paper mill by Azolla pinnata.
From Figure. 1 to 3, it may be observed that the order of removal efficiency between TDS, BOD and COD in a paper mill effluent is BOD>TDS>COD against the selected process parameters of dilution ratio, pH, and biomass.
The constructed wetland experiments were done to know the aptness of Azolla pinnata for eradicating TDS, BOD and COD in paper mill effluent. The ability of Azolla pinnata was observed for removing TDS, BOD, and COD against the process parameters like dilution ratio, biomass, and pH. The results of this study indicated that the maximum removal percentage of TDS, BOD, and COD from the effluent of paper mill was found to be 84.3%, 90.6% and 82.6% respectively and it was identified at an optimum dilution ratio of 6, biomass of 400 g and pH of 8. Thus, this study concluded that the aquatic plant Azolla pinnata might be used as sorbents for removing TDS, BOD, and COD along with other parameters in paper mill effluent. Further, this study may extend to remove any pollutant from not only in a paper mill effluent, but also from any industrial wastewater.
- Sivakumar D. Experimental and analytical model studies on leachate volume computation from solid waste. Int J Environ Sci Tech. 2013;10(5):903-16.
- SivakumarD. A study on contaminant migration of sugarcane effluent through porous soil medium. Int J Environ Sci Tech.2011;8(3):593-604.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD.Effect of aeration on colour removal from textile industry wastewater. Int J Environ Sci. 2012;2(3):1386-91.
- SivakumarD, ThandaveswaraBS, ChandarasekaranKD. Solid waste leachate quality and its effects on soil properties.Pollut Res.2004;23:69-81.
- Sivakumar D, Shankar D. Colour removal from textile industry wastewater using low cost adsorbents. International J Chem Environ Pharma Res. 2012;3:52-7.
- SivakumarD, MuruganN, RajeshwaranR, et al. Role of rice husk silica powder for removing Cr(VI) in a tannery industry wastewater.Int J Chemtech Res. 2014;6(9):4373-8.
- ShankarD, SivakumarD, ThiruvengadamM, et al. Colour removal in a textile industry wastewater using coconut coir pith.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):490-503.
- SivakumarD, BalasundaramV, VenkatesanG, et al. Effect of tamarind kernelpowder for treating dairy industry wastewater.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):519-523.
- SivakumarD.Role of low cost agro-based adsorbent to treat hospital wastewater.Pollut Research. 2014;33(3):573-6.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD, NithyaS, et al. Reduction of contaminants from leachate using moringaoleifera? A kinetic study.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):529-29.
- Sivakumar D. Adsorption study on municipal solid waste leachate using moringaoleifera seed. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2013;10(1):113-24.
- Sivakumar D. Hexavalent chromium removal in a tannery industry wastewater using rice husk silica. Glob JEnviron Sci Manage. 2015;1(1):27-40.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD, KandaswamyAN, et al. Role of electro-dialysis and electro-dialysis cum adsorption for chromium (VI) reduction.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):547-52.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD, GomathiV,et al. Application of electro-dialysis on removal of heavy metals.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):627-37.
- SivakumarD, KandaswamyAN, GomathiV, et al. Bioremediation studies on reduction of heavy metals toxicity.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):553-8.
- ShankarD, SivakumarD, YuvashreeR. Chromium (VI) removal from tannery industry wastewater using fungi species.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):505-10.
- SivakumarD, GayathriG, NishanthiR, et al.Role of fungi species in colour removal from textile industry wastewater.Int J Chemtech Res. 2014;6(9):4366-72.
- Sivakumar D. Removal of contaminants in a paper mill effluent by Azollacaroliniana. Glob J Environ Sci Manage. 2015;1(4):297-304.
- Sivakumar D. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium in a tannery industry wastewater using fungi species.Glob J Environ Sci Manage. 2016:2(2):105-24.
- Amar S, Sasadhar J. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla Pinnata.Water Air and Soil Pollut.1986;27(1):15-8.
- SoltanME, RashedMN. Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of heavy metal concentrations. Adv Environ Res. 2003;7(2);82- 91.
- TürkerOC, VymazalJV, TüreC. Constructed wetlands for boron removal: A review. Ecol Eng. 2014;64:350-9.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD, VijayaPrathimaAJR, et al. Constructed wetlands treatment of textile industry wastewater using aquatic macrophytes.Int J Environ Sci. 2013;3(4):1223-32.
- SivakumarD, ShankarD, DhivyaP, et al. Bioaccumulation study by lemnagibba lin.Pollut Res. 2014;33(3):531-6.
- APPA, AWWA, WEF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed.Washington D.C.: APHA Publication, USA; 2005.