Environmental Impact Due to Coal Production and UtilizationAuthor(s): Mubarak F, Elywa M and Sanad E
Different samples of local and imported charcoal, soil and wood were collected from and around traditional charcoal kilns which based on earth pit designs. Samples were analyzed using HPGe detector. According to the obtained concentrations, human risk and environmental effects was estimated. External equivalent and effective dose were estimated using (DFEXT codes). Internal hazard index (Hin), alpha index (Iα), representative level index (RLI), outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate (Dout), annual effective dose (Eout) and excess life time cancer (ELCR) were estimated. Results show that skin receive the highest external exposure while, pancreas received the lowest value. Hin due to charcoal and soil samples was permissible when compared to the recommended value (Hin must be ≤ 1). A simple comparison between activity concentrations of local and imported charcoal was investigated. Elemental analysis was carried out using x-ray technique. Charcoal contains several elements, including calcium, potassium, Silicon, titanium, manganese, aluminum, iron, zirconium, strontium, copper, rubidium, arsenic and sulfur. Gross beta activity concentrations for charcoal samples were determined.