Catalyst and its featuresAuthor(s): Falcon Jason
For carrying out several kinds of radical cascade reactions that go through radical and radical ion intermediates, the electron is an effective catalyst. However, catalysis by electrons frequently goes unrecognized because electrons are so common. This Review presents a straightforward parallel between redox catalysis and acid/base catalysis. The electron is conceptually a catalyst in a similar way to how a proton is a catalyst. The "electron as a catalyst" hypothesis mechanistically integrates a variety of synthetic processes that would otherwise be unrelated or appear to be unrelated. Numerous radical cascades, such as base-promoted homolytic aromatic substitutions (BHAS), direct arene trifluoromethylations, radical alkoxycarbonylations, radical Heck-type reactions, and unimolecular radical substitution reactions (SRN1-type chemistry), can all be seen as electron-catalyzed reactions. ZrO is reviewed for catalysts and catalytic supports. The distinctiveness of the structure and surface characteristics, such as surface OH group behavior, are introduced. We present the catalytic characteristics of boosted and dispersed ZrO. Also shown is the innovative use for the photocatalytic complete breakdown of water.