, Volume: 17( 12)
Effects of Land Use Types and Conservation Practices on Selected Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Anjeni Micro Watershed, Dembecha District, Ethiopia
- Diego López Diez
Senior Research Scientist, Yale School of the Environment, Spain
E-mail: [email protected]
Received:December 08, 2021; Accepted: December 23, 2021; Published: December 30, 2021
Rapid increase in population demands more production of food, fodder, fiber and fuel from the land. Highlands of Ethiopia, with altitude above 1500 Meters Above Sea Level (MASL) are the dominant sources of water, crop and fodder production. They are densely populated and hold about 90% human and about two-thirds of livestock population. The highlands cover about 50% of the land area with 95% of the cropping land accounting for over 90% of the country’s economy. To meet these needs, vast tracts of land are being put under intensive cropping and large areas of grasslands are being overgrazed and degraded in Ethiopia. Additionally, new and often marginal lands are being brought into production. Soil resources are finite, non-renewable and prone to degradation through misuse and mismanagement . In Ethiopia, natural resources are under great pressure. Land degradation, including deforestation, soil erosion and biological soil degradation had been reported to be very rampant throughout the country . Reported that because of its topographic nature, the removal of land cover leads to soil degradation. Environmental degradation, high population growth in developing countries, and the need to enhance sustainable agricultural productivity are interlocked issues that constitute a triple global challenge currently. For combating and minimizing the rate of soil degradation and to improve the land productivity through sustainable use of soil resources, understanding the soil physicochemical characteristics of land use systems and management practices are required. Moreover, understanding the effect of land use types and conservation practices on soil properties is useful for developing land management strategies and for sustainable agriculture .
The water of the Pisuerga River as it passes through Valladolid suffers from different risks, that generate problems in the state of the fluvial ecosystem, being discharges, excess of chemicals, and the introduction of species the most pressing. To avoid this, measures are proposed at the treatment plant and against spills.
Pollution of the environment is a topic that provokes sensations of dread today, because climate change, global warming and the pollution of cities are very notorious elements in our day to day. It is only a few years that concern about these problems has been become part of a global consciousness. But are they really all treated? Problems obviously this answer is unfortunately negative. Water pollution is par excellence one of the problems that human beings generate organic matter wherever we go, phosphates, nitrates and non-soluble solid residues (as major elements) among others, they are the cause of the death of aquatic ecosystems. Throughout this article we will see the different sources of contamination of waters of the Pisuerga River as it passes through Valladolid (Spain) .
Material and Methods
Analyzing the physical and chemical residues, we can determine that the most abundant come from solid urban waste, detergents and discharges from oversized, like furniture, and old appliances. In the microscopic section, micro-plastics plague the waters that end up in the seas, and at the confluence of marine currents, islands of our waste thrown into the oceans years ago, increasing this situation every minute . On the other hand, in the treatment plants it can be seen how in the storm water reception tanks, these residues pile up, saturating the system, on the other hand, the dissolved micro-plastics, slow down the functioning of methanogen bacteria, responsible for degrading the organic matter, and the excesses of phosphates and nitrates contained in detergents and leachates from urban solid waste. Despite all this, when returning the water to the channel, it is never found 100%, therefore, the amount of dissolved O2 is minimal and the turbidity is very high, generating anoxic and eutrophic environments, very marked in areas where the river current loses strength.
Based on the above, we must highlight the problems that are generated in the ecosystem, having anoxia as a pressing problem in areas of emission of purified water, generating changes in the fauna and flora; trouble increased by the introduction of species that have spread throughout the over the years throughout the river network. This type of risk can be seen very easily in the rivers of the cities, in which the native fauna is restricted to specific areas or has been seen deleted; replaced by invasive species that are more tolerant of harmful conditions that are generated in the channels to which the "purified" water. It is easy to recognize the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the black bass (micropterus salmoides) that plague the middle reaches, as well as tubifex worms, and decomposing fungi that eliminate the little oxygen, besides this has made disappear local amphibians, as well as macro-invertebrates and vegetation aquatic, responsible for oxygenating and providing stability to the ecosystem river.
Examples of extinct species are the white-legged crab (Austropotamobius pallipes), the common frog (Pelophylax perezi) and the San Anton (Hyla arborea), and the various species of zygoptera and anisoptera which are very notorious bio indicators of the quality of the ecosystem.
Increase the degradation processes of chemicals in the water, to raise the dissolved O2 levels. Penalize illegal dumping more in the river system, and carry out more patrols in the city area. Actively eliminate harmful species such as Black bass (Micropterussalmoides).
River water requires prior treatment before purification, more intensive to avoid the intrusion of polluting elements in the water. It is necessary to eliminate or minimize discharges from homes and industries of non-degradable solid waste to the sanitation res.The action of people who dump large waste into the river system must end.
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