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Research
, Volume: 19( 6)

A Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Î?-Cyhalothrin-New Nanomaterial for Plant Protection

*Correspondence:
NVS Venugopal, Department of Chemistry, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India E-mail: [email protected]

Received: June 18, 2021; Accepted: July 2, 2021; Published: July 9, 2021

Citation: Venugopal NVS, Padmavathi P, Swathi N, et al. A Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Λ-Cyhalothrin-New Nanomaterial for Plant Protection. Int J Chem Sci. 2021;19(6):409

Abstract

Nano science has wholly chip in to foremost accomplishments in different sectors of agriculture. Insecticides are functional for prevention and control of plant disease. Excessive application of insecticides leads to the unfavourable pesticide consequences on human and plant health and damage environment. In this current study the author reported a facile synthesis of new Nano λ- Cyhalothrin using polycapralactone as an encapsulated agent for insect infection control and its successive characterization of encapsulated complex. Nano λ-Cyhalothrin encapsulated particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Ultraviolet spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size distribution was noted at 40 nm-50 nm. The bioactivity study was conducted against various aspergillusbacillus. Nano λ-Cyhalothrin showed a better bio-efficacy in comparison with commercial pesticide. The valuable information stated by author leads to potential application of polymeric nanomaterials in protecting plant health with huge potential.

Abstract

Nano science has wholly chip in to foremost accomplishments in different sectors of agriculture. Insecticides are functional for prevention and control of plant disease. Excessive application of insecticides leads to the unfavourable pesticide consequences on human and plant health and damage environment. In this current study the author reported a facile synthesis of new Nano λ- Cyhalothrin using polycapralactone as an encapsulated agent for insect infection control and its successive characterization of encapsulated complex. Nano λ-Cyhalothrin encapsulated particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Ultraviolet spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size distribution was noted at 40 nm-50 nm. The bioactivity study was conducted against various aspergillusbacillus. Nano λ-Cyhalothrin showed a better bio-efficacy in comparison with commercial pesticide. The valuable information stated by author leads to potential application of polymeric nanomaterials in protecting plant health with huge potential.

Keywords

λ-Cyhalothrin; Nanoencapsulation; Polycaprolactone; Electron microscopy; Antifungal study

Introduction

Pesticides certainly engage in reaction an imperative role for augment food production. Extensive monitoring of the tangible state and residue levels of pesticides in agricultural products was important at present. Insecticides are painstaking class of pesticides and applied for used for prevention and control of various insect infections.

Lambda-cyhalothrin (C23 H19CLF3 N03) is an insecticide. λ-Cyhalothrin (CY) fit in to a group of pyrethroids. IUPAC name is (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxylbenzyl (Z)-(1R,3R)-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-enyl)-2, 2 dimethylcyclopropane carboxylate.

CY products move towards in a range of forms including powders, pellets, liquids, small capsules, and ear tags containing the chemical called Lamda cyhalothrin and are now used to control different types of insects in crops including cereals, cotton, and vegetables [1]. λ-Cyhalothrin is damage the nervous system of insects, CY affects a variety of indoor and outdoor different types of insects. CY has the vigorous constituent with very low solubility in water. Cyhalothrin is inherently highly toxic to many fish and aquatic invertebrate species, binding to soil and sediment reduces exposure and lessens the risk. According to the WHO expert committee, "The concentrations of cyhalothrin and CY that are likely to take place in water from normal agricultural application will be low [2]. Hayam et al. determined the presence of CY residue in Zucchini by gas chromatography [3]. The residual amount estimation of Cyhalothrin and CY insecticides is chiefly reliant on GC methods using different detectors like flame photometric detection, electron capture detection, nitrogen phosphorous detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry detection, gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection or gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry detection etc [4-9]. Nanopesticides proffer a range of benefits including durability, increased efficacy, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used [10]. A range of formulation types have been suggested including emulsions (e.g., nanoemulsions), nanocapsules (e.g., with polymers), and inorganic ENPs, such as metals, metal oxides, and nanoclays [11-13].

The study of application of nanoparticles for the control of pest is less studied and it is drawing superior attention to researchers. In assured cases pesticide nanoparticles solve the possibility of control of pests effectively [14,15]. In the present work the author reported an ecofriendly and facile synthesis of Nano-λ-Cyhalothrin (NCY) and the characterization of the nanopesticide was studied by using Dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectral study and Electron microscopy techniques. Bio assay was conducted against aspergillusflavus.

Materials and Methods

Reagents

λ-Cyhalothrin was purchased from S.N. Agro Traders, Andhra Pradesh, India. The capping agent Ploycapralactone was purchased from E. Merck, India. All other chemicals used were of Analytical grade. Double distilled water was used in all attempts.

Preparation of Nano λ-Cyhalothrin

Initially the CY was diaphanously grounded by using mortar and pestle. The ashore pesticide was dissolved in 200 mL acetone and it is mixed with Polycapralactone (1:5) in an ultra sonicate bath for 30 minutes. This will help for the dispersion of λ-Cyhalothrin in polycapralactone. The sonicated solution was kept continuous stirring 5 hours with 1400 rpm and it was subjected to rota vapour for the removal of excess solvent.

Instrumentation

The study was performed by using different instruments for indentify and characterize the formed NCY. The details were given in Table 1.

Instrument Make Purpose
Dynamic light scattering (DLS Horiba Particle size distribution
UV-Vis spectrophotometer Shimadzu UV-1650 PC Characterization and Identification of organic molecule
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Zeiss Evol8 surface topology

Table 1. Instrumentation details

Results and Discussion

Generally the benefits of nanopesticides are less use of chemicals, better efficacy and better control of application. The advantages of nanoparticles are small size, high surface energy and we get more crop yields the delivery of pesticides in agricultural field in the form nano scale could be the unsurpassed substitute for prevention and control pests. Nano-λ- Cyhalothrin (NCY) lowers the toxicity in agricultural fields and it is decidedly active at lower level concentration. The current investigation affords a new facile synthesis of NCY by using Polycaprolactone as capping agent. The polycaprolactone boost the stability and it gradually releases the active NCY constituent to the infected plant. The structure of CY and polycapralactone were given in FIG. 1-3.

International-Journal-Chemical-Sciences-Release-2021-19-06-g001

Figure 1: Release of nanopesticide

International-Journal-Chemical-Sciences-Structure-2021-19-06-g002

Figure 2: Structure of λ-Cyhalothrin

International-Journal-Chemical-Sciences-Structure-2021-19-06-g003

Figure 3: Structure of polycapralactone

DLS analysis

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measures the scattering intensity based on Rayleigh scattering. pade laplace dispersion factor was considered to report the diameter of the nano-encapsulated CY. DLS primarily based on Rayleigh scattering, oscillations, Brownian movement and fluorescence exponential decay. Generally in DLS a time dependent signal was transformed into the hydro colloidal solution and it results in the exponential decay of the particles. One milli litre of nano-encapsulated CY was suspended in five milli litres of water. The consequential hydro dispersed suspension was analyzed with DLS at 25˚C. The particle size distribution was recorded around 40 nm-50 nm. The signal passed in to hydro colloidal nano suspension, exponential decay of Nano-λ-Cyhalothrin and the particle size distribution were shown in FIG. 4 and 5.

Ultraviolet-Visible spectral study

In order to make certain the formation and stability of NCY, UV-Vis spectral studies are indispensable. The absorption maximum obtained from the spectra shown in FIG. 6. Formulated was at 250 nm and unformulated at 200 nm.

SEM analysis

From scanning electron microscope (SEM) factors like surface topology, size of NCY etc was studied at 500 × -35 k × magnification. A drop of NCY formed is taken on the stub and it was air dried then subjected to sputtering using sputter coater. The SEM image divulges the homogeneity in shape and it is regular among different scan a regions. The SEM images symbolize the agglomeration of particles and also with narrow particle size distribution. The obtained SEM image described in FIG. 7. and it shows a number of Nano-λ-Cyhalothrin particles in the form of clusters.

Application of NCY against aspergillusflavus

The antifungal activity of NCY was examined against Aspergillusflavus in petri dish assay by disc diffusion method [16]. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was selected for the culture of the fungal isolates which induce the conidia production incubated at 37°C temperature for ten days. De-ionized water (sterile) was selected as control. The concentration of NCY was taken 40 ppm and 20 ppm, diluted 100-fold with de-ionized water. On to the PDA mediums filter paper discs dipped in different ppm were inserted and the petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 2-4 days respectively. The size of the zone was determined by measuring the diameter of the zone in millimeters. NCY showed 2.6 mm for 40 ppm and 0.9 mm for 20 ppm and the commercial CY showed 1.6 mm for 40 ppm and 0.6 mm for 20 ppm. NCY shows better end results with reference to the commercial CY which can be clearly depicted. The various inhibitory zones of NCY samples were shown in FIG. 8. and the effectiveness of CY compared to NCY was given in Table 2.

Organism Zone of inhibition
Commercial CY
Zone of inhibition
Commercial NCY
Aspergillusflavus 40 ppm 1.6 mm 40 ppm 2.6 mm
20 ppm 0.6 mm 20 ppm 0.9 mm

Table 2: Effectiveness of CY and NCY against Aspergillusflavus

Conclusion

Nano science has wholly chip in to foremost accomplishments in different sectors of agriculture. In order to minimize the size of CY pesticide molecules polycaprolactone was used as capping agent. The formed NCY is regarded as the better alternative to conventional pesticide. NCY was formulated by using polycapralactone as encapsulating agent. The valuable information stated by author leads to potential application of polymeric nanomaterials in protecting plant health with huge potential.

Acknowledgements

We are deliberately thankful to the department of Chemistry, GIS, GITAM University for their immense support and huge encouragement.

Conflict of interests

No conflict of interest was reported by the authors

References

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