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Pilot studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engl (Capparidaceae)

Author(s): Cletus Nze Aguwa, Festus Nwabueze Ejiekpe, Charles Ogbonnaya Okoli, Adaobi Chioma Ezike

The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol leaf extract and fractions of Buccholzia coriaceae Engl (A. Chev) (Capparidaceae) was studied using xylene-induced topical acute edema of the mouse ear, egg albumin-induced systemic acute edema of the rat paw, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test and formaldehyde arthritis in rats. The results showed that the extract and fractions suppressed acute and chronic inflammation to varying extents. The extract and fractions significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the development of topical edema in the mouse ear and systemic edema of the rat paw. The extract and fractions also significantly (P<0.05) inhibited granuloma tissue growth and the global edematous response to formaldehyde arthritis. The ethyl acetate fraction (EF) caused the greatest inhibitory effect in all the tests. Acute toxicity and lethality tests on the extract established an intraperitoneal and oral LD50 >5 g/kg in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, resins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids in the extract and fractions. The most active fraction, EF, change positive to resins, flavonoids and alkaloids. These findings showed that leaves of B. coriaceae possess anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.

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