In this study, the dust/particle fallout rate within the cairo central railway station was investigated during the period from december 2003 till november 2004. Results obtained indicated that the average particle fallout rate within the main station building was less than 10g/m2/month, with its soluble portion exceeding its insoluble portion. Identification of the main organic functional groups within the soluble portion of the collected dust was conducted using FTIR technique. As well, selected metal ion content (Ca 2+, Cu 2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Mg +2, Mn+2, Pb+2, Se+2, Ag+, V+5 and Zn+2) within the insoluble portions was analytically determined. The data revealed that while the intensity of activities within the station building had a notable impact on the recorded particle rate and its content, the effect of outside activities(heavy traffic and construction work) was considerable noting the ambient and regional wind conditions. Multivariate cluster analysis of the measured parameter values showed a strong dependency of both the soluble and insoluble components on the extent of diesel fuel emissions therein. As well, it helped in the identification of sources contributing to the measured metal ion content of the insoluble portion of dust.