Determination of real loss (the permanent loss) of water in Raiwada source network in Visakhapatnam water supply system - A case studyAuthor(s): Vazeer Mahamood, V.Chandraiah
Significant progress has been made in water sector in developing technologies and best practices for conserving, purifying, recycling, and desalination water etc., that effectively increase drinking availability. In the developed world, basic efficiency measures are now widely practiced to reduce un accounted flow of water in urban sector in the industrial and commercial sectors and include the use of low-volume plumbing fixtures, reduction of irrigation schedule, and efficiency improvement for watercooling technologies and equipment. Industrial dischargers generally employ best available pollution control technologies. Basic drinking water and sewage treatment are, in place, throughout the developed world and developing nations. More efficient and effective technologies are gradually emerging.Water losses categorized into two groups, one is real losses and the other is apparent losses. Real losses are to usually from the leakages in the transmission and distribution sides, leakages and over flow in reservoirs, sumps and storage tanks and also the leakage of water on service connections up to a point of consumer metering. Apparent losses are due to in- accumulate metering, un authorized connections, unbilled connections etc., All these leaks lead to Non revenue of water(NRW). In the case ofGVMC(GreaterVisakhapatnamMunicipal Corporation) the NRWis as much as 25 to 35% as reported. Study conducted on one of the trunk main namely ÂRaiwada SourceÂ which caters 28% of water demand of GVMC. Real losses are calculated on the system and at least 26% losses are found in the distribution system and 8% losses are found in supply side from trunk main to service reservoirs. If real losses restricted to the norms of CPHEEO, saving in water utility would be 9 MGD which is sufficient for the time being to supply water at 150 lpcd to the residents of Visakhapatnam.