Parası kalmadığı için otobüse binemiyordur ailesi porno izle ona daha yeni para gönderdiği için tekrar porno istemeye utanınca mecburen otostop çekmek için youporn çantasını alarak yol kenarına gelir etekli porno liseli türk kız yol kenarında dururken yanına yaklaşan porno kibar bir gencin onu gideceği yere kadar bırakmak porno izle istemesine çok mutlu olur arabaya bindiklerinde gideceği yer ile porno arabayı kullanan adamın gittiği yer arasında çok mesafe sex izle farkı olduğunu anlayan türk kız bu yaptığı porno indir iyilik karşısında arabada ona memelerini açar porno sapıklaşan adam yol kenarındaki hotelde durarak porno izle üniversiteli otostop çeken türk kızına odada sakso çektirip sikerSurvey of Grapevine Yellows Phytoplasma Diseases Flavescence doree and Bois Noir in Commercial Vineyards in Georgia

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Short communication
, Volume: 17( 6)

Survey of Grapevine Yellows Phytoplasma Diseases Flavescence doree and Bois Noir in Commercial Vineyards in Georgia

*Correspondence:
Zurab Khidesheli
LEPL Scientific Research Center of Agriculture, 0159, Tbilisi, Georgia
E-mail: [email protected]

Abstract

In recent years, symptoms of this Phytoplasma diseases have appeared in Georgia. The main goal of the research was to study grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases (FD and BN) in the east part of Georgia- Kakheti region (villages Kondoli, Napareuli, Tsinandali) and Kartly region (Villages Jigaura and Mukhrani).

5 grapevine cultivars (“Chardonarry”; “Khihkvi”; “Saperavi”;”Cabernet sauvignon”;”Manavi mtsvane”) in commercial vineyards were studied for grapevine yellows phytoplasma diseases FD and BN. Triplex real-time PCR assay with TaqMan minor groove binder probes (TaqMan-MGB) was used for identification of FD and BN infections. Two primers pair and probes (set I and set II) were used for the assessment of spreading of FD and BN diseases.

Study revealed that only one grape variety (Manavi mtsvane) reacted negative with PCR primers and probes as set I and set II. Out of 147 samples FD infection rate varied from 5.55 % to 9.09% in four grapevine cultivars. Cabernet sauvignon was free from BN infection whereas infected rate in other four tested cultivars varied from 3.12 % to 8%. It is noted that “Chardonna y”, ”Crimson Sidles” and “Cabernet Sauvignon” grapevine cultivars mix infection were shown with both FD and BN in the same samples.

The evidence of both FD and BN diseases were confirmed in tested grapevine cultivars using two set of primers and probes.The presence of FD and BN quarantine infection in commercial vineyards requires constant monitoring and preventive measures to avoid the spread of the disease further in Georgian vineyards.

This work is partly presented at 33rd International Conference on Food Science and Technology, October 25-26, 2021