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Studies on phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Curcuma aromatica and Coscinium fenestratum

Author(s): T.R.Prashith Kekuda, S.Mukunda, S.J.Sudharshan, Syed Murthuza, G.M.Rakesh

Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity ofCurcuma aromatica (rhizome) and Coscinium fenestratum (stem) was investigated. The powdered plant materials were subjected to soxhlet extraction using ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids in both the extracts. The ethanol extracts of the plant materials were subjected to antibacterial activity (Agar well diffusion method) andAntifungal activity (Poison food technique). The bacterial strains were seeded on media by Spread plate method and test fungi were point inoculated. Diameter of zone of inhibition was recorded (for bacteria) and colony diameter in poisoned plates (for fungi) was measured to assess the effect of extracts on test organisms. Both the extracts have shown marked antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacteria and fungi tested. Ethanol extract of Cosciniumfenestratum was found to inhibit bacteria to more extent than ethanol extract of Curcuma aromatica while fungi were more inhibited by Curcuma aromatica extractwhen compared to Coscinium fenestratum extract.Among bacteria, E. coliNCIM-2065wasmore inhibited by extracts followed by Enterobacter aerogenes NCIM-2340, Staphylococcus aureus NCIM-2079 and Bacillus subtilis NCIM-2063. The growth of Mucor sp. was totally inhibited by extracts of both plants at 1% concentration. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae were found to be more sensitive to ethanol extract of Curcuma aromatica when compared to ethanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the two plant materials tested may be attributed to the phytochemicals present and the results obtained offer the scientific basis to the use of these plants in traditional medicine.

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