Solution molarity effect on electrical properties of SnO2 thin filmsAuthor(s): Sami Salmann Chiad, Saad Farhan Oboudi, Ghuson H.Mohamed, Nadir Fadhil Habubi
Tin oxide thin films of different molarities were successfully deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on preheated glass substrates at a temperature of 500°C. the Effect of molarity concentration on film properties was investigated. All deposited films were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction for structural characterizations, weight difference density method for thickness measurement, the two probe conductivity measurements for electrical characterization. The X- ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the film of 0.1 M tin chloride pentahydrate has amorphous structure. With increasing the molarity concentration of the films to 0.3 M and 0.5 M the patterns showed a polycrystalline structure with preferential orientation along (110) direction. Results showed that the resistivity increases remarkably as the molarity increases. The variation of electrical conductivity as a function of temperature increases with increasing temperature, and tend to decrease with increasing the molarity concentration to 0.5 M. The activation energies increased with increasing the molarity concentration. Hall measurements showed that all films are n-type. The charge carrier concentration, Hall mobility, drift velocity, and mean free path decreases with increasing molarity concentration.