Caffeic and Gallic Acids Protect Commercial Infant Milk Formula from Oxidative DamageAuthor(s): Oshra Saphier
Objective: To determine whether the addition of polyphenols (gallic and caffeic acids) to infants milk substitutes, prevents oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, under conditions of oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation products seem to be directly involved in the development of cancer, atherosclerosis, and aging processes
Materials and methods: In order to induce controlled oxidative stress we used ultraviolet radiation UV-C 254 nm with energy doses in the range of 0-14 J/ml. We followed lipid peroxidation by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in order to measure the amount of secondary oxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA). Polyphenols were added to the type specified the range of 0-3 mM concentrations. To measure the change polyphenols amount, the method of Folin-Ciocalteu assay was used.
All reagents and solvents were of analytical grade. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), gallic acid (GA) caffeic acid (CA), ethyl alcohol, sodium carbonate and Folin–Ciocalteu solution were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Infant milk formula was purchased at the local market
Results: We have proved that UV-C radiation is able to oxidize PUFA. We found a direct relationship between radiation dose and the amount of oxidation products formed as a result of exposure to radiation. We showed that the polyphenols, gallic acid and acid coffee, are able to decrease oxidation by the observed decline in oxidation products of MDA. High concentrations of polyphenols can prevent oxidative damage radiation exposure: coffee acids are effective in about 20% more than gallic acid. In order to prove that the addition of polyphenols to the milk formula was the reason for the decline in oxidative damage that was caused to the fatty acids, we carried out an experiment that examines the amount of polyphenols in the system before irradiation and after irradiation in two doses of UV-C, and for two effective concentrations of polyphenols.
Conclusion: Given the results of this work, we recommend adding caffeic acid to the powdered infants' milk substitutes. This addition will protect the fatty acids particularly the important LC-PUFA from environmental oxidative damage. In addition, it is also important in protecting the formula from oxidative stress and damage which may have devastated result on the baby consumer. The major advantage in adding polyphenols in addition to lycopene or vitamin C is a high resistance of caffeic acid over time, and its heating resistance.