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Phytochemical screening, antibacterial, and Invitro cytotoxic evaluation of Cichorium intybus root extracts indigenous to Iraqi Kurdistan

Author(s): Aveen N.Adham, Alaadin M.Naqishbandi

The phytochemical screening in the root of Cichorium intybus had led to detection of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardioactive glycosides, steroids, and phenolic compounds. Antibacterial evaluation of petroleum ether, 80% ethanol, and ethyl acetate root extracts at three different concentrations against three gram positive and five gram negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method was carried out, all bacterial strains found to be susceptible for ethyl acetate extract with lowest MIC value (15.625 mg/ml) against Bacillus spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. TLC agar overlay bioautography method resulted in identification of three constituents from ethyl acetate extract with antibacterial activities chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and kaempferol of which caffeic acid showed the lowest MIC value (0.15 mg/ml) against Escherichia coli, and Proteus spp. In vitro cytotoxic activity of 80% ethanol and ethylacetate extracts at concentrations 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1 mg/ml against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549) at time intervals 24, 48, and 72hr showed significant decrease in cell viability with increase in concentration of extracts. IC50 for 80% ethanol extract was recorded as (0.7033±0.0472 mg/ml) on 72hr, and for ethylacetate extract as (0.96±0.02 mg/ml) and (0.566±0.01527 mg/ml) on 48 and 72hr respectively.

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