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Short commentary

, Volume: 19( 12)

Usage of Aqueous Solutions to Extrac t Metals

Jehane Ragai Department of General Agronomy, Al Azhar University, Egypt, E-mail:

Received: December 03, 2021; Accepted: December 17, 2021; Published: December 24, 2021

Citation: Ragai J, Usage of Aqueous Solutions to Extract Metals. Int J Chem Sci. 2021;19(12):419.


Pyro metallurgy involves processes of high temperature at which chemical reactions occur. Electrometallurgy incorporates metallurgical processes that occur in one type of electrolytic cell. Pyro metallurgy involves processes of high temperature at which chemical reactions occur. Electrometallurgy incorporates metallurgical processes that occur in one type of electrolytic cell.


Electrometallurgy is an important branch of metallurgy that uses electrical energy to win metals in alcohol and refine the refined metals found in the pyro-metallurgical line as well as hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical lines. This branch of metallurgy also involves the production of metals and alloys by electrothermic smelting. This chapter discusses electrowinning and electrorefining in more detail. Both electrowinning and electrorefining are performed on electrolytic cells composed of a reinforced concrete tank filled with lead or a mixture of lead or PVC or high-density polyethylene. The voltage required for the use of an electrolytic cell is the total amount of chemical reaction, emf due to polarization in the anode and cathode, emf to overcome the ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and the contact power between the electrodes and buses. The chapter also discusses the key features of the few metals extracted and refined by the electro-metallurgical line.

Hydrometallurgy is an internal mechanism of extractive metallurgy, the discovery of minerals in their ores. Hydrometallurgy involves the use of aqueous solutions to obtain metals, alloys, and recycled or residual materials. The processing techniques associated with hydrometallurgy are pyro metallurgy, vapor metallurgy, and electrometallurgy of molten salt. Hydrometallurgy is divided into three general categories: Leaching, a solution to torture and purification, metal or metal compound recovery. Immersion involves the use of water-soluble solutions to remove metals from the metal-bearing material that is in contact with the metal-containing material. The first examples are from 11-12 centuries in China where it was used in copper extraction and played an important role in complete copper production. In the 17th century it was used for similar purposes in Germany and Spain.

The conditions for a lixiviant solution vary depending on the pH, the ability to reduce oxidation, the presence of chelating agents and the temperature, increase the rate, quality and choice of dissolving the required amount of iron in the liquid phase. By using chelating agents, one can make a choice by choosing certain tools. Such chelating agents are usually amine-based schiff. The five basic configurations of a leaching reactor are in-situ, bulk, vat, tank and autoclave.

After immersion, the alcohol should normally be absorbed into the iron ions to be recovered. Additionally, unwanted metal ions sometimes need to be removed. Rain is a special removal of a target metal compound or the removal of heavy impurities by the fall of one of its compounds. Copper concentrates like its sulfide as a means of purifying nickel leachates.

Cementation is the conversion of iron ions into iron by a redox reaction. A typical application involves the incorporation of molten metal into a copper ion solution. The iron melts and the copper is put in place: Solvent Release, Ion Exchange, Gas reduction. Treating a nickel and ammonia solution with hydrogen gives the metal nickel as its powder. Electrowinning is a particularly cost-effective electrolysis method used to separate precious metals. Gold can be electroplated from its solutions.


The authors are grateful to the journal editor and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions.

Declaration for Conflicts of Interests

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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