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Research
, Volume: 19( 1) DOI: 10.37532/0972-768X.2021.12(1).403

Promotion of Carbon Footprint Development Mechanism: A Case Study of Osu Night Market

MK Commeh1*, Z. Agyeman-Rawlings2, E. Sefa Appiah3, and F. Ziebell4

1Applied Industrial Ceramic-Rural Energy & Enterprise Development, Technology consultancy center, college of engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2Parliament of Ghana, Klottey-korle Constituency, Accra Ghana

3Department of Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

4Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University, Weimar, Germany.

*Correspondence:
M.K. Commeh, Applied Industrial Ceramic-Rural Energy & Enterprise Development, Technology consultancy center, college of engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, E-mail: [email protected]

Received: October 21, 2020; Accepted: November 04, 2020; Published: November 11, 2020

Citation: Commeh MK, Rawlings ZA, Appiah ES, et al. Promotion of Carbon footprint development mechanism; a case study of Osu night market. Int J Chem Sci. 2020;19(1):103

Abstract

Energy, one of the fundamentals for economic growth is also one of the fundamental sources of pollutions, through its by-products, as gases emissions; namely particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). OSU night market on Lokko street, is an old popular market at Klottey Korle constitution of Accra. OSU is a suburb of Accra in which the market is situated. In this market activities normally starts at 3 pm and climax around 9 pm and ends completely around 2 am. During this period mainly, foods are sold to people from all corner of Ghana. Most travellers, mostly drivers and official from government establishment troop there to buy food for the evening. The delicacy or tasty nature of the food attracts people to the market. Food cooked and sold in the market are mainly, kenkey, rice, kelewele, fried yam, fufu, and porridge. Fish and meat like pork are also smoked and sold in the market to go with some of the food sold. It is the cooking and smoking with inefficient cookstove and smoking ovens in the market that causes the air pollution during trading activities. Firstly, a survey cookstoves, smoking oven and positions for taking air pollution measurement were marked. Air pollution levels were measured before and after interventions, and levels of carbon footprint recorded. New clean cookstoves and fish smoking oven with efficiency of 60% and fuel reduction of 66.66% were installed together with huge chimneys to direct the smoke away into the atmosphere. From our findings there was a rise in particulate matter from 820 ug/m3 to 8024 ug/m3 before the installation of the clean cookstoves and then decline from 8024 ug/m3 to 35 ug/m3 after the installation of the clean cookstoves. After the intervention the average PM2.5 reduced from 1821.625 ug/m3 to 494.75 ug/m3 and that of Carbon monoxide reduced from 12.96 ppm to 2.575 ppm.

Date Carbon  monoxide  CO  (ppm) Date Carbon  monoxide  CO  (ppm)
  Before   After
14.11.18 15.7 22.11.18 47.4
15.11.18 13.1 23.11.18 24.20
16.11.18 22 28.11.18 6.0
17.11.18 5.8 29.11.18 15.30
18.11.18 21.4 30.11.18 7.30
19.11.18 9.7 01.12.18 6.30
Total 87.77 Total 59.1
Average 10.03 Average 2.575

The diurnal profiles in figure 5. Shows an inverse relation between both the particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions as against the relative humidity and temperatures. Since almost all the readings were talking between the period of 3:00 pm to 12 midnight, representing late afternoons and evenings. From the graph there was a rise in particulate matter from 820 µg/m3 to 8024 µg/m3 before the installation of the clean cookstoves and then decline from 8024 µg/m3 to 35µg/m3 after the installation of the clean cookstoves. Owing to some environmental factors such as the nature of the market sheds and the measurement schedules there was a decrease in temperatures causing a temperature inversion thus reducing the thermally-induced convection nature of the atmosphere. This phenomenon act as a cap inhibiting the diffusion of particulate matter and carbon monoxide off the market shed and with the structure of the market it tends to also increase the accumulation of particulate matter and carbon monoxide emitted. Even though there is negative correlation between particulate matter and temperature in an open environment, it tends to be positive for particulate matter and the relative humidity according to [15]. Osu night market as our case study exhibited quiet a complex and different dynamics as compared to an open environment in the case of [15] findings. As relative humidity (RH) falls, temperature rises thus reducing the amount of moisture in the atmosphere. Warm air tends to hold a lot of water vapour than cold air. It is realised from the graphs that, where PM2.5 increases temperature also increases as RH decreases. This is because of the conductive nature of PM2.5 and Black carbons, as do absorbs a lot of heat and moisture due to its nano pores from the upper atmosphere of the market, thus creating phenomenon we see in the graphs or data in the appendix. As moisture and heat is absorbed RH rises and temperature sinks. The PM2.5 and black carbon become heavy and settle on the beams and ceiling of the market create a tick black and at time sagging or hanging tar as seen in FIG.6. According to [15] condensation of volatile compounds and the increase of wood burning are the possible cause for the increase in particulate matter concentration at night

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Figure 5: Design of the fish smoker

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Figure 6: Charcoal fish smoking cook-stove as an approach to replace the old stove made from a car rim closer to it

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Figure 7: A paranoma view of osu night market

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Figure 8: A graphical representation of the average particulate matter and carbon monoxide emissions as against the relative humidity and temperatures before and after the installation of the clean cook stoves

Conclusion

The design of the stove is such that any fuel consumption is reduced by 60% and making sure users are not affected by heat and emissions, improving revenue from saved fuel, and reduced labour for in search of fuel wood, LPG. For instance, Dede, a kenkey seller or vendor, saved ten Ghs 10.00 now, from her Ghs15.00 fuel expenditure. Her output has triple within the same period of working time. Customers now have expressed their observation of improve indoor air pollution after the interventions. Even though not all the stoves had been replaced the reduction of emission is significant, indicating an improvement in the carbon foot print. Some of vendors have resorted to a shift system of utilising the new stoves due to its comfortability and fuelwood saving and reduction. Generally, European standard was not reached, but that can be explained by the fact that not all clean stoves have been built yet and also, that, the whole market must be reconstructed to cater for good improve ventilation system.

The approach to promote and implement carbon footprint involves dialoguing with stakeholders in terms of what is needed from their understanding of mental model. This involved the technology of the solution and it is going to affect their health. This done to reduce resistance to change. The use of improved cooking devices has been shown for the results, that it is possible to improve the health of both customers and agro-food processors. Though, not every vendor in the market received the new cooking devices, the indoor air pollution reduced by 31.15% PM2.5 and 67.37% carbon monoxide.

Recommendation

RecommendationIt is recommended that the market must be redesign to take into consideration ventilation system, including a place to clean and wash dishes. It is also realized and recommended, that, approach of behavioural science/change/all inclusive, can save lives and protect the environmental health, save money and human health in the process of promoting carbon footprint. It can enhance governance thus, trust, which the fundamental element in getting things done quicker potential through behaviourally-informed interventions in carbon foot print execution thus mitigating climate change.

References

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