Editorial, Volume: 15( 2) DOI: .2021;15(2):137
Varsha Rai* Department of Pharmaceutical Science, United Institute of Pharmacy, India
*Corresponding author: Varsha Rai, Department of Pharmaceutical Science, United Institute of Pharmacy, India,
Received date: March 04, 2021; Accepted date: March 19, 2021; Published date: March 19, 2021
Citation: Varsha Rai. Lipid based nanostructures. Nano Tech Nano Sci Ind J.2021;15(2):137.
AbstractLipid-based nanocarriers have remarkable properties identified with their physiochemical variety, biodegradability and biocompatibility. A few kinds of lipid-based nanostructures were created including liposomes, Strong Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid transporters (NLC) and nanoemulsions. The utilization of such nanostructures can work on the bioavailability of inadequately porous and ineffectively water-solvent medications, just as upgrade the conveyance of bioactive mixtures. Liposomes are shut vesicles made out of amphiphilic lipids that can ensnare both hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms.
Lipid-based nanocarriers have remarkable properties identified with their physiochemical variety, biodegradability and biocompatibility. A few kinds of lipid-based nanostructures were created including liposomes, Strong Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid transporters (NLC) and nanoemulsions. The utilization of such nanostructures can work on the bioavailability of inadequately porous and ineffectively water-solvent medications, just as upgrade the conveyance of bioactive mixtures. Liposomes are shut vesicles made out of amphiphilic lipids that can ensnare both hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms.
Liposomes are spherical structures made up of two layers of lipid molecules with their nonpolar groups facing each other and the capacity to form bilayers spontaneously in aqueous solutions. Liposomes have an amphiphilic character, and as a result, these structures may be utilised to encapsulate molecules of different polarity, such as polar compounds in the aqueous core and nonpolar compounds in the liposome bilayers. A complicated process involving hydrophobic, polar, and hydrogen bonding drives the interaction between lipophilic compounds and phospholipid bilayers. When paired with variations in liposomal permeability and stability, the wide distribution of chemicals in the bilayer, as well as the "weak" character of certain of these interactions, may promote the release of encapsulated substances. Liposomes are further categorised as Unilamellar Vesicles (ULV) or Multilamellar Vesicles (MLV) based on the number and structure of lipid bilayers. Liposomes have also long served as excellent tools for model membranes and therefore lipid molecules other than Phosphatidylcholine (PC) that may direct changes in the bilayer structure have been well studied. Examples of external triggers include the use of two natural forces, heat and light. Liposomes sensitive to moderate hyperthermia are the most well-studied instances of triggered drug delivery, but light-sensitive liposomes (explored since the early 1980s) have recently regained interest.
Solid lipid nanoparticles
SLNs were created to address the shortcomings of existing lipid-based nanocarriers. In order to do this, the liquid lipid (oil) in the emulsion was replaced by solid lipid, resulting in an ordered crystalline structure that allows the bioactive components to be accommodated within the lipid matrix. The physical lipid matrix state, which is determined by the nanoparticle composition, controls the mobility of encapsulated bioactive chemicals in SLNs. The higher release rate can be attributed to changes in nanoparticle viscosity, since a high concentration of lipids leads in greater medium viscosity and more stiff solidified nanoparticles. High-pressure homogenization, microemulsion formation, emulsification-solvent evaporation (precipitation), solvent injection (or solvent displacement), phase inversion, the multiple emulsion technique, ultrasonication, and the membrane contractor technique are all methods for encapsulating drug solutions into SLN.
Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC)
When compared to other colloidal carriers, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a possible delivery method in which partialcrystallized lipid particles with mean radii of 100 nm are distributed in an aqueous phase including emulsifier(s). NLC are a valuable nutraceutical delivery method with excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and stability. They may improve bioavailability and stability of bioactive chemicals, as well as shelf-life, consumer acceptance, functionality, nutritional value, and safety of food systems, and offer controlled release of encapsulated components. NLC have the capacity to preserve labile anticancer medicines that are known to be hydrolyzed, allowing the active pharmaceuticals to remain in the circulation for a longer length of time for example the anticancer therapeutics paclitaxel and doxorubicin have been successfully loaded into NLC.
Persistent headways in exemplification innovation and materials science have brought about a wide scope of lipid-based conveyance frameworks that empower productive antimicrobial vehicle and controlled delivery. Since the constructions might be made by changing their structure, size, surface attributes, and film smoothness, they can be utilized as great carriers for regular antibacterial synthetic substances. The fuse of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphiphilic synthetic substances into lipid-based nanostructures makes these materials great transporters for antimicrobials