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tsm, Volume: 12( 1)

Attributes of Different Water: A New Perspective

Bidwai V , Shalyatantra Department, Ayurved College, Pusad (MH), India, Tel: (07233) 48627; E-mail:

Received: April 4, 2017; Accepted: April 17, 2017; Published: April 22, 2017

Citation: Bidwai V, Chawardol V, and Bodade D. Attributes of Different Water: A New Perspective. Macromol Ind J. 2017;12(1):101.


People are today very much concerned about the food they eat, the amount of vitamins and minerals they consume. Water is part of environment i.e panchamahabhuta which constitutes the human body. But little emphasis is placed in quality of water in Ayurvedic classics, while dealing with Jala-varga. Acharyas have distinctly mentioned properties of water with various sources, seasonal variations in property, properties of water according to receptacle, method of storage of water, cause of water pollution, methods of purification, methods of cooling, attributes of potable water, warm water, cold water etc. Water is one of the most precious substances on earth. It covers over 70% of the earth's surface and is very important resource to people and the environment. It has been observed that due to industrialization and urbanization our water sources are getting contaminated, resulting severe environmental hazards and it directly affect the human health.


Water; Vitamins; Minerals; Human health


Earth's surface, covering about 70% of the planet and constitutes 60% to 70% of the living world. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) and may take many different forms on Earth. Water vapor, clouds in the sky, sea water in the oceans, iceberg and glacier in the polar oceans and the liquid in aquifers in ground (Table 1).

Rasa Avyakta (Anthareekshajam), Madhura (Samanyajam)
Guna Laghu, Snigdha
Veerya Seeta
Vipaka Madhura

Table 1: Properties of water[1,2].

Anthareekshajala or water from the sky is tasteless, and having properties like nectar, vital for life, satiating, maintains the body, invigorating and allays tiredness lethargy, thirst, intoxication, fainting, drowsiness, sleep and burning sensation and is always highly beneficial. According to Charakacharya entire water is ultimately of one type and properties vary according to time and space. By nature, rain water has qualities like coldness, purity, benevolence, pleasantness and clearness (Tables 2 and 3) [3].

Panchamahabhoothas Taste of water
Prithwi Sour and salt
Jala Sweet
Agni Acrid and bitter
Vayu Astringent
Aakasa Unmanifested

Table 2: Taste of water according to Panchamahabhoothas[4].

Nature of Earth Properties of water
Fall on white earth Astringent
Fall on yellowish white earth Bitter
Fall on brown earth Alkaline
Fall on saline soil Saline
Fall on mountain valley Pungent
Fall on black soil Sweet

Table 3: Effect of receptacle on rain water.

Water from the sky

Anthareekshajala or water from the sky is of four types. Dhara (rain water), Kara (hail water), Thoushara (dew) and Haima (snow water). Out of them rain water is the best due to laghuthwa (lightness). This again is of two types, Ganga and Samudra. Theganga water usually falls in the month of aswina (last period of rains). There is a test to identify ganga water. A lump of well-cookedsali rice which, should be kept outside in a silver utensil while it rains; if it remains as such after one muhoortha, it should be understood that ganga water is raining. If the colour changes in sali rice, samudra water may be raining. Samudra water if collected in the aswina month becomes lideganga water. Further ganga is the best and that should be collected during aswina.

This type of water collected from the end of a spread out clean and white cloth and kept in gold, silver or earthen pots. During its unavailability, water from the earth should be used. Charakacharya called it as aindra. These are of seven types viz. Koupam (water from well), Naadeyam (from river), Saarasam (natural lake), Thaadaagam (artificial lake), Prasravanam (spring), Oudbhidam (a fountain), Choundyam (improperly built well). Vagbhatachary also mentioned the types with an additional source as Vaapi (well with steps) (Tables 4 and 5).

Source Properties
Koupa Kshara, Deepana, Pittakrit
Saarasa Madhura, Laghu
Thaadaga Guru, Vatakrit
Choundya Pittakrit
Prasravana Doshahara
Oudbhida Madhura,
Vaapi Madhura, Laghu
Naadeya Katu, Rooksha, Vatakrit

Table 4: Different sources of water and their properties.

Varsha Anthareeksha and Oudbhida-Mahagunatwat
Sarat Sarvjala-Prasannatwat (clear)
Hemanta Sarasa, Tadaaga
Vasanta Kaupa, Prasravanam
Greeshma Kaupa, Prasravanam
Pravrut Choundyam ? Anavam

Table 5: Seasons in relation to the type of water to be used [4].

Attributes of potable water/Ideal water

That water is of good quality which is odorless, tasteless, which quenches thirst, pure, cool, transparent, light, and pleasant. The water which is slightly astringent and sweet in taste, exceedingly thin, non-slime, light, soft and non-greasy is best to be taken (Tables 6-8).

Varsha Heavy and greasy
Sarath Thin light, non-greasy.Person with tender body constitution and those who are accustomed to unctuous food are advised to use this water.
Hemanta Unctuous, aphrodisiac, strength promoting, heavy
Sisira Light, alleviate vataandkapha
Vasanta Astringent and sweet, unctuous
Greeshma Not greasy

Table 6: Effect of season on water.

River water flowing westwards Beneficial due to lightness
River water flowing eastwards Not commendable due to heaviness
River water flowing southwards Not too bad due to moderate qualities
River originating from Sahya mountain Cause skin lesions
River originating from Vindhya mountain Skin lesion and anaemia
River originating from Malaya mountain Worm infestations
River originating from Mahendra mountain Elephantiasis, abdominal, enlargements,
River originating from Himalaya mountain Cardiac disorders, oedema, headache, elephantiasis, Goiter
River originating from Avanti region Piles
River originating fromPariyatra region
(Western Vindhya)
Beneficial, produce strength and health
Fast flowing rivers Not muddy, light
Slow flowing rivers Heavy
From desert Bitter, salty, light, sweet, aphrodisiac and healthy

Table 7: Characteristics of River water from different sites.

River water Increases vata, hard, appetizer, light and antiobestic, but if it is sweet, denser and heavy it is hydrating and increases kapha
Water from natural lake Quenches thirst, tonic, astringent, sweet and light
Water from artificial lake Increases vata, sweet, astringent, and acid.
Tank water Eliminates vata and kapha, alkaline, acrid, and increases pitta
Well water Salty, increases pitta, eliminates kapha, appetizer and light
Well water without Masonic work Increases digestive power, hard and sweet and does not increase kapha
Spring water from falls Eliminates kapha, appetizer, light and pleasant
Spring water Sweet, alleviates pitta and does not causes indigestion associated with acid eructation
Water from sand pits Acid, alkaline, eliminates kapha, light, appetizer
Water from fallow land Sweet after digestion, heavy and increases doshas
Water from marshy places Increases doshas
Sea water Fleshy odour, salty, and increases doshas
Water from swampy region Bad qualities, hygrating, not recommended
Water from dry regions Harmless
water from ordinary regions Quenches thirst, no burning sensations, pleasant, appetizer, sweet, cool and recommended for use

Table 8: Properties of water from different sources.

According to Acharya Sushrut the water which does not spill out during boiling, which is free of froth, is clean, light and reduced to one fourth quantity after boiling is said to be Ideal [4].

Attributes of warm water

Warm water mitigates kapha, medas and vata, kindles digestion, cleanses the urinary bladder, cures dyspnoea, cough and fever and suited to health at all times.

Attributes of cold water

Cold water is ideal for use in fainting, aggravation of pitta, increases of body heat, burning sensation, poison, aggrevation of blood, alcoholic intoxication, giddiness, exhaustion, delusion, vomiting and bleeding from router [1,2,4-6].

Attributer of coconut water

Coconut water is unctuous, sweet, cold, and good for heart, kindles digestion, cleanses the urinary bladder, aphrosidiac, heavy, mitigates pure and cure severe thirst.


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