Sono Facilitated Selective Nitration of Naturally Occurring Cardanol Using Phase Transfer CatalystAuthor(s): Patil BR, Chetta C, Pinjari DV and Pandit AB
In the present work, ultrasound facilitated nitration of hydrogenated cardanol was carried out using dilute nitric acid (9 wt%). The nitration was accomplished in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), which acts as a phase transfer catalyst. The nitration reaction was carried out in a 50 ml three neck flask, which was placed in an ultrasonic bath operating at a frequency of 24 kHz and with a delivery power of 150 watt. The effects of various parameters viz., agitation speed, temperature, nitric acid concentration, TBAB concentration, were studied on the yield of o-nitro cardanol. Kinetic studies have been performed for the nitration of hydrogenated cardanol, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the reaction has been established. The work has clearly recognized that, the ultrasonic irradiations are superior for the synthesis of ortho nitro cardanol with higher yield as compared to the conventional approach.