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Recent Trends in Bone Tissue Regeneration Using Commonly Used Natural and Synthetic Polymer Nanocomposites

Author(s): Melody Cole

Minerals make up the majority of bone, which is connective tissue. It serves various vital tasks in the organism, including protection, movement, calcium and phosphate storage, housing for bone marrow, and maintaining structural integrity. The need for functional bone grafting procedures is steadily expanding across the world. Approximately $45 billion is spent each year on the care of approximately 15 million individuals with bone disorders, including 1.6 million fractures caused by trauma and 2 million osteoporotic bone abnormalities. In the United States, around 1.6 million people get bone grafting surgeries each year, costing $2.5 billion. Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE) is a paradigm that tries to successfully include bone regeneration at the defect site of the host while avoiding extra issues such as donor site morbidity, immunogenicity, and poor vascularization. Osteogenic cells generate the bone tissue matrix, a biocompatible framework, or scaffold, made of bioactive materials that mimic the ECM of the bone, vascularization that provides mass transport of nutrients and wastes, and morphogenetic signals that direct the cells are the four key components of BTE. A biomaterial's purpose is to aid tissue regeneration at the defect location and eventually be "resorbed and replaced" with freshly created bone tissue over time.

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