Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Apoptosis Lymphocytes of Peripheral Blood in the Pathogenesis of Atopic Bronchial Asthma of Light and Serious Severity

Author(s): Vodounon Alode Cyrille, Skibo Yulia, Aikou Nicolas, Akpona Simon, Abramova Zinaida Ivanovna, Kotchoni Oloni Simeon and Baba-Moussa Lamine

Background: The deregulation of the apoptosis of immune-competent cell has been suggested to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory reactions in allergic diseases like asthma. This study aimed to investigate the particularity of apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in allergic asthmatic patients (light and severe persistent asthma). The study of apoptosis peripheral blood lymphocytes were assessed by electron and optic microscopes and flow cytometry. Result: The apoptosis of the lymphocytes of asthmatics shows structural and biochemical particularities. The initial phase of the apoptosis is expressed through the correlation between the number of cells with a decrease in the mitochondrial potential and the translocation of the phosphatidyl serine on the surface of lymphocytes of patients. The extension of the survival of lymphocytes in asthmatics of light severity is associated with the increase of the proliferating activity on the slowdown of the apoptosis of cells. On the other hand, the increase of the rate of self-antibodies directed against DNA in asthma of serious severity is associated with the death of lymphocytes by means of programmed necrosis, followed by the development of the alteration of the nearby cells and the inflammatory reactions, but also the phagocytosis of the remaining cellular fragments and the development of the immune response, if these cellular fragments contain chromatin associated with antigens. Conclusion: The results obtained (especially with the patients of serious severity) allowed to understand the impact of the apoptosis on the immunity of the patients and to forecast the degree of serious asthma. Further study in immunology will benefit from these findings in order to better understand the process of apoptosis in atopic bronchial asthma patients. It appears to be obvious that diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disorders may derive benefit from such studies.

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