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Cancer NanoMedicine: Recent Advances in Tumor Targeting Using the EPR Effect

Author(s): Varsha Rai

Due to a leaky vasculature and poor lymphatic drainage in solid tumours, nanocarriers preferentially concentrate in the tumour through passive targeting. The permeability of a disordered vascular and Tumour Microenvironment (TME) combined with retention can result in a 70-fold increase in macromolecule accumulation in the TME. The EPR effect is enabled by the leaky and faulty vasculature generated as a result of the fast vascularization required for the maintenance of malignant tumours, along with poor lymphatic drainage. EPR-based drug delivery is influenced by a number of parameters, including circulation time, targeting, and the capacity to overcome obstacles, all of which are influenced by the drug particles' size, shape, and surface features. The majority of passive-targeting relies on a diffusion process. As a result, in the EPR-dependent delivery procedure, size is critical. According to studies, nanoparticles with a size range of 40 nm to 400 nm are appropriate for ensuring lengthy circulation duration and increased accumulation in tumours with decreased renal clearance. Because of the unique interaction of nanoparticles with phagocytic cells, the presence of phagocytic cells might promote an increase in nanoparticle concentration in the tumour microenvironment's vasculature.
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