Hydrodistilled volatile oil obtained from the rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (Zingiberaceae) analyzed byGC and GC-MS was composed mainly of ar-turmerone (58.9%) followed by bicyclogermacrene (11.7%), (E)-2-hexenal (5.3%), ã-himachalene (4.0 %), its isomer (3.8 %), caryophyllene oxide (3.4 %) and valencene (3.2 %).Among 16 sesquiterpenes consisting 91.6%, the prominent sesquiterpenes were ar-turmerone (58.9 %), bicyclogermacrene (11.7 %) and ã- himachalene (4.0 %). Total five monoterpenes (3.3%) were present in the oil including four hydrocarbons (2.3 %) and one alcohol (1.0 %). About 13 components occurred in trace amounts in the oil. The volatile oil and ethanolic extract of the rhizomes showed significant antimicrobial activity.