Characterization of Anthocyanins by GCMS

Author(s): R. V. Sarpate, T. K. Deore, M. V. Patil and S. V. Tupkari

Anthocyanins (ACN) are part of a large and wide spread group of plant constituents, known collectively as flavanoids. Anthocyanins can be used as natural colorant. GCMS is the most powerful technique for determination of the molecular structure of anthocyanins. This technique provides molecular weight and mass spectral pattern for the exact structural characterization of the anthocyanins. In the present study, the colour pigments anthocyanins are extracted from fruits of Ficus racemosa. Family: Moraceae, using acidified methanol (1% HCl in methanol). The extracted anthocyanins were isolated and purified using the Amberllite–XAD4 resin. The anthocyanins isolated and purified by column chromatography were eluted in methanol and were directly injected in the GCMS system. The spectral pattern was recorded and from the m/z ratio of the daughter and the parent fragment ions, the type of anthocyanins along with its structure was identified and characterized. In the present study, anthocyanins were characterized by means of chromatographic and spectral data obtained from GCMS, TLC and UV spectroscopy. Two major pigments identified were peonidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. Peaks for the anthocyanins, which are present in very low amount, and in less concentration, can be verified by means of commercially available external standards. The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize the anthocyanin pigments present in the fruits of Ficus racemosa by chromatographic and spectral data.

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