AlzheimerÂs disease is a chronic, progressive disabling organic brain disorder characterized by disturbance of multiple cortical functions, including memory, judgment, orientation, comprehension, learning capacity and language. Nootropic agents like, piracetam, and cholinesterase inhibitors like, Donepezil are commonly used for improving memory, mood and behavior but their adverse side effects have made their use limited and it is worthwhile to explore the utility of traditional medicines in the treatment of various cognitive disorders. In the present study we evaluated the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Allium sativum Linn. On aging, scopolamine and diazepam induced amnesia in mice. Elevated plus maze was employed to assess short-term memory. In order to delineate the possible mechanism through which A.sativum elicits the anti-amnesic effects, the whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity(AChE) was also assessed. Three doses(7.5, 10, and 15mg/kg, p.o.) of aqueous extract of A.sativum were administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. The 7.5, 10, and 15mg/kg, p.o aqueous extracts of A.sativum elicited profound neuroprotective effect on scopolamine(0.4mg/kg i.p.) and diazepam(1mg/kg, i.p.) treated and older mice compared to control and piracetam(200mg/kg, i.p.) treated mice. Aqueous extract of A.sativum significantly inhibited acetyl cholinesterase(AChE) activity in the whole brain homogenate of mice indicating its potential in the attenuation of learning and memory deficits especially in the aged mice. Hence A.sativum can be highly useful in the management of cognitive disorders.