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Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Review Articles

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe, myelin-damaging disorder of the central nervous system ( CNS) in an immunosuppression environment superimposed by concurrent autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and AIDS, or concurrent administration of immune modulatory monoclonal antibody drugs such as natalizumab. The causative agent is a polyomavirus known as the John Cunningham (JCV) virus, which affects oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, resulting in focal, extensive, and progressive demyelination throughout the brain. Following extensive medical studies, the pathogenesis of JCV 's latent and active infection has yet to be fully understood. How the JC virus is transmitted is unclear so there are currently no ways to prevent infection. The best way to avoid PML disease, however, is by maintaining a balanced immune system. This involves beginning treatment with HIV until failure of the immune system.  

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