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Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacodynamics (PD) is that the quantitative study of the connection between drug exposure (concentrations or dose) and pharmacologic or toxicologic responses. PK/PD analysis combines PK and PD model components to explain the dose–concentration–response time course. PK/PD models are especially useful for biopharmaceuticals since dose- and time-dependent effects on PK and responses are common. PK/PD models for biopharmaceuticals (and small molecules) became increasingly sophisticated, and newer mechanistic PK/PD models not only empirically describe the info , but can include pertinent aspects of physiology which allow extrapolation across species and disease indications. PK/PD models also can provide simulations and hypothesis testing of potential drug impacts on biology and may be of great value in early molecule design and engineering, particularly for “biobetter” molecules where improvements in specific molecule characteristics (i.e. stability, improved FcRn binding) or target interactions (i.e. improved affinity, different binding epitope) are desired. Disorders that affect pharmacodynamic responses include genetic mutations, thyrotoxicosis, malnutrition, myasthenia , Parkinson disease, and a few sorts of insulin-resistant DM . These disorders can change receptor binding, alter the extent of binding proteins, or decrease receptor sensitivity. A drug’s pharmacodynamics are often suffering from physiologic changes thanks to A disorder or disease, Aging process, Other drugs 

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