The natural arrangement and apportionment of the various forms of animals and plants in the different regions and localities of the earth. A geographic range limit is the geographic boundary beyond which a species does not occur, the limit or limits of the range of a species. "Core populations" are populations of individuals occurring within the center of the range, and "peripheral" or "edge populations" are groups of individuals near the boundary of the range.The inability of a species to expand its range beyond these limits is because of some factor or factors that constrain the species from adapting to overcome the factors that are imposing limits on its distribution.In some cases, geographical range limits are entirely predictable, such as the physical barrier of an ocean for a terrestrial species.In other cases, reasons why species do not pass these boundaries are unknown, however the main determinants of the distribution of a species across its range are ecological and evolutionary processes.

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