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Research
, Volume: 20( 3)

SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF -3-FURAN-2-YL-4-PHENYL-BUTYRIC ACID COMPOUND DFT METHOD (FT-IR AND FT-RAMAN), NBO ANALYSIS, HOMO-LUMO, FIRST ORDER HYPERPOLARIZABILITY, AND DOCKING STUDIES

*Correspondence:
P Chakkaravarthy
Department of Chemistry,
Government Thirumagal Mills College Gudiyattam,
Tamil Nadu,
India,
Tel: 6369462485;
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received: June 23, 2022, Manuscript No. tsijcs-22-67457; Editor assigned: June 27, 2022, PreQC No. tsijcs-22-67457; Reviewed: July 11, 2022, QC No. tsijcs-22-67457; Revised: August 22, 2022, Manuscript No. tsijcs-22-67457; Published: August 29, 2022, DOI:10.37532/0972-768X.22.20.430

Citation: P Chakkaravarthy. Spectroscopic Studies of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid Compound DFT Method (FTIR and FTRaman), NBO Analysis, Homo-Lumo, First Order Hyper polarizability and Docking Studies. Int J Chem Sci. 2022;20(3):430

Abstract

The goal of this research is to characterize 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid. The molecule was created using quantum chemistry and vibrational spectrum techniques. The ideal molecular geometry (bond length, bond angle), whole vibrational frequency, infrared intensities, and Raman scattering activities were determined using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3LYP approach with the 6- 311++G (d, p) basis set. The estimated HOMO-LUMO band gap energies confirm charge transport within the molecule. The hyper conjugative interaction energy E (2) and the electron densities of donor I and acceptor (j) bonds were calculated using NBO analysis. Other factors were calculated and analyzed in addition to NLO and MEP. Molecular docking was performed to determine the hydrogen bond lengths and binding energy with numerous different molecules to study the investigation molecule's biological activities.

Keywords

Hyper conjugative interaction, Density functional theory, HOMO-LUMO band gap

Introduction

The vibrational spectroscopic studies of anti-inflammatory molecule 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid with the help of DFT method. It is used to fever, stiffness, swelling and relieve pain. The title molecule is soluble in water and sparingly insoluble in alcohol.

An extensive literature survey conducted reveals that a great deal of research has been done on aryl propionic acids and its substituted derivatives. Structure characterization investigation of ketoprofen, a propanoic acid derivative by combined quantum chemical calculations and spectroscopic analysis was done by ML Vueba [1]. Various other properties of propionic acids and its substituted derivatives have also been studied to state its uses in biological field. Photo degradation mechanism of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing Thiophene moieties: Suprofen and Tiaprofenic Acid by Klefah AK Musa is one such work [2]. Molecular mobility of ibuprofen and ketoprofen was evaluated with respect to the different inter molecular linear/cyclic hydrogen bonding associations by MT Ottou Abe [3].

Quantum chemical computational techniques have proved to be an indispensable tool for deducing and predicting the vibrational spectra [4,5]. Sophisticated electron correlation and density functional theory calculations are increasingly available and deliver force field of high precision even for large polyatomic molecules [6,7]. Neither the complete spectroscopy analysis nor the quantum chemical calculations for the title compound have been reported so far on the basis of the literature survey done. The objective of the present study is to give a complete account of the molecular geometry and vibrations of the title molecule. For that purpose, quantum chemical computations were carried out to study conformational stability analysis, molecular structure and FT-IR spectral investigation of 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Vibrational spectra have been analyzed on the basis of calculated Potential Energy Distribution (PED). Mean polarizability, dipole moment and first order hyperpolarisability have been investigated by ad initio DFT methods. In addition to this, ab initio and density functional theory calculations using 6-311++G (d, p) basis set were used to determine the HOMO-LUMO energy.

Materials and Methods

Experimental details

The title compound in the solid state was procured from Sigma Aldrich chemical company with a stated purity 98% and it was used without further purification. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded in the region 4000–450 cm-1 with the sample in the KBr pellet, using Perkin Elmer FT-IR spectrometer. The resolution of the spectrum is 4 cm-1. The FT-Raman spectrum was obtained in the range 4000–100 cm-1 using Bruker RFS 100/S FT-Raman spectrophotometer with a 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser source of 100 mW power. All the experimental spectral data (FT-IR, FT-Raman) collected from SAIF, IIT, Chennai, India.

Computational details

The spectroscopic analysis and the quantum chemical calculations which comprises of the optimized structure of the title compound, corresponding energy and vibrational harmonic frequencies were calculated by using DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set using GAUSSIAN 03W program package [8]. 6-311++G is a split-valence triple-zeta basis and adds one Gaussian Type Orbitals (GTO) to 6-31G that uses three sets of contracted functions for each valence orbital type [9,10]. The geometric structure as well as parameters, namely bond angle and bond length were obtained from CHEMCRAFT software.

Vibrational frequencies are scaled 0.9461 for B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p). The symmetry considerations and the vibrational assignments are made with a high degree of accuracy using the Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) software [11]. The GABEDIT software and ORIGIN6.1 software were used to generate the theoretical and experimental IR and RAMAN spectrum and the spectra were compared. The hyperpolarisability for the title molecule was also calculated at B3LYP level using the basis set 6-311++G (d,p) Polar = enonly. By using the Gaussian 03W output the thermodynamical variables were found out using THERMO.PL [12]. The correlation graphs of the thermodynamical variables (entropy, enthalpy and heat capacity) vs. temperature were plotted for the title compound. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) was also calculated using Gauss View. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) was calculated of the title molecule at B3LYP level using the basis set 6-311++ G (d,p) POP=NBO test. This analysis is done to give clear evidence of stabilization originating from hyper conjugation of various intra molecular interactions [13-15]. The Raman activities (Si), calculated with the GAUSSIAN 03W program, were subsequently converted to relative Raman intensities (Ii) using the following relationship derived from the theory of Raman scattering using raint program [16,17].

equation

Where υ0 is the laser excitation frequency in cm−1 (in this work, the excitation wave number, υ0=9398.5 cm-1, which corresponds to the wavelength of 1064 nm of a Nd: YAG laser, υi is the vibrational wavenumber of the ith normal mode in cm−1, h, kbc and T are the fundamental constants Planck constant, Boltzmann constant, speed of light and temperature in Kelvin, respectively.

Results and Discussion

Geometrical structure

The optimized structure parameters of the title compound were calculated at B3LYP levels and are recorded in (Table 1). In accordance with the atom numbering scheme as obtained from CHEMCRAFT software and represented in (Figure 1). This molecule has fourteen C-C bond lengths, four C-O bond lengths, thirteen C-H bond lengths and one O-H bond length. The molecular geometry in the gas phase may differ from the solid phase, owing to the extended hydrogen bonding and staking interactions. From theoretical values, any variation in the optimized bond lengths is because the theoretical values belong to the isolated molecules in gas phase and the experimental values belong to the molecules in solid state [18]. It is observed that the calculated C-C bond lengths and the O-C bond lengths are found to be nearly identical at all calculation levels. The average value of the bond distances of C-C and C-H in the benzene ring calculated by density functional theory method with same basis sets are 1.529 A and 1.098 A, respectively. Inclusion of OH and CH atoms brings a strong electron withdrawing nature to the compound and thus is expected to contribute to the formation of a resonance structure. This is the reason for the shortening of bond lengths O2-H31=0.981 Å and C9-H23=1.08 Å obtained by DFT method compared to other bond lengths like C4-C5=1.535 Å. In this title molecule the bond angle C7-O1-C14= 104.3° is smaller than the other bond angle C16-C17-H30=120° calculated.

Parameter
bond length (Å)
B3LYP/
6-311++ G(d,p)
Parameter
bond angle (0)
B3LYP/
6-311++ G(d,p)
O1-C7 1.333 C7-O1-C14 104.3
O1-C14 1.359 O1-C7-C4 114
O2-C12 1.358 O1-C7-C9 114.7
O2-H31 0.981 O1-C14-C13 110.6
O3-C12 1.222 O1-C14-H27 115.6
C4-C5 1.549 C12-O2-H31 111.9
C4-C6 1.544 O2-C12-C3 123.7
C4-C7 1.529 O2-C12-C6 110
C4-H18 1.1 O3-C12-C6 126.3
C5-C8 1.511 C5-C4-C6 111.1
C5-H19 1.098 C5-C4-C7 111.6
C5-H20 1.099 C5-C4-H18 108.4
C6-C12 1.512 C4-C5-C8 113.3
C6-H21 1.096 C4-C5-H19 111.2
C6-H22 1.097 C4-C5-H20 109.4
C7-C9 1.336 C6-C4-C7 110.6
C8-C10 1.385 C6-C4-C18 107.2
C8-C11 1.385 C4-C6-C12 113.1
C9-C13 1.415 C4-C6-C21 110.3
C9-H23 1.08 C4-C6-H22 109.5
C10-C15 1.395 C7-C4-H18 107.7
C10-H24 1.086 C4-C7-C9 131.3
C11-C16 1.395 C8-C5-H19 109.7
C11-H25 1.086 C8-C5-H20 107.7
C13-C14 1.375 C5-C8-C10 119.3
C13-H26 1.08 C5-C8-C11 119.3
C14-H27 1.08 H19-C5-H20 105
C15-C17 1.395 C12-C6-H20 107.1
C15-H28 1.086 C12-C6-H22 108.9
C16-C17 1.395 H21-C6-H22 107.8
C16-H29 1.086 C7-C9-C13 104.3
C17-H30 1.086 C7-C9-H23 128.3
C10-C8-C11 121.4
C8-C10-C15 119.3
C8-C10-H24 121.4
C8-C11-C16 119.3
C8-C11-H25 121.3
C13-C9-H23 127.5
C9-C13-C14 106.1
C9-C13-H26 127.6
C15-C10-H24 119.3
C10-C15-C17 120
C10-C15-H28 120
C16-C11-H25 119.5
C11-C16-C17 120
C11-C16-H29 120
C14-C13-H26 126.3
C13-C14-H27 133.8
C17-C15-H28 120
C15-C17-C16 120
C15-C17-H30 120
C17-C16-H29 120
    C16-C17-H30 120

TABLE 1. Optimized geometrical parameters of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid (2F4PBA).

tsijcs-numbering

Figure 1: Optimized geometric structure with atom numbering of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid (2F4PBA).

Donor acceptor interactions

In quantum chemistry, a calculated bonding orbital with maximum electron density forms a natural bond orbital or NBO. In computational chemistry the localized orbitals are used to calculate the distribution of electron density in atoms and in bonds between atoms. The details obtained about the interactions in both filled and virtual orbital space can complement the study of both inter and intra molecular interactions, which is the basis of studying NBO. That is why NBO analysis is proved to be an important tool for chemical analysis of hyper conjugative interaction and electron density transfer from filled lone electron pairs of the Lewis base (an electron pair donor) Y into the unfilled anti bond σ* (X-H) of the Lewis acid (an electron pair acceptor) X- in X-Y….Y hydrogen bonding systems [19]. The magnitude of energy of hyper conjugative interactions, E (2) forms the basis of studying the strength of the interaction between electron donors and electron acceptors, or the donating affinity from electron donors to acceptors and hence the degree of conjugation of the entire system. The second-order Fock matrix was done to evaluate the donor–acceptor interactions in NBO analysis [20]. The interactions cause loss of occupancy from the localized natural bond orbitals of the idealized Lewis structure into an empty non-Lewis orbital. For each donor (i) and acceptor (j), the stabilization energy E (2) related with the delocalization i → j is estimated as

equation

Where qi is the donor orbital occupancy

εj and εi are diagonal elements

Fij is the off diagonal NBO Fock matrix element.

Delocalization of electron density between occupied Lewis type (lone or bond pair) natural bonding orbitals and previously unoccupied non Lewis (anti bond or Rydberg) natural bonding orbitals correspond to a stabilizing donor–acceptor interaction. In order to interpret the intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Intermolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) and delocalization of electron density, NBO analysis was performed on the title molecule using B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) Pop=NBO test basis set and the corresponding results are presented in Table 2. Intensity of the interaction between electron donors and electron acceptors is directly dependent on E (2) value, i.e. more the donating tendency from electron donors to electron acceptors, greater is the extent of conjugation of the whole system. The intra-molecular interaction is formed by the orbital overlap between σ(C-C) and σ*(C-C) bond orbital which results in Intra-molecular Charge Transfer (ICT) causing stabilization of the system. These interactions are observed as increase in Electron Density (ED) in C-C, C-H, C-O and O-H anti-bonding orbital that weakens the respective bonds. NBO analysis was performed on the molecule at the DFT/B3LYP6-31++G (d,p) level in order to explicate the delocalization of electron density within the molecule. The delocalization of σ electron from σ (C1-C2) distribute to anti-bonding σ* (C2-C3), σ * (C3-C14), σ* (O6-H23) leading to the stabilization energy of 0.84 kJ/mol, 1.99 kJ/mol, 2.95 kJ/mol, respectively due to conjugative interactions.

A strong interaction has been observed due to the electron density transfer from the Lone Pair (LP) (1) of Oxygen atom (O5) to anti-bonding orbital σ*(C1-C6) with a large stabilization energy of 32.76 kJ/mol. In the case of LP (1) of Oxygen atom (O13) to the anti-bonding acceptor σ*(C14-C15) and σ*(C16-C17) has low stabilization energy of 5.82 kJ/mol and 6.67 kJ/mol respectively as shown in Table 2. The interaction energy, related to resonance in the molecule, is electron withdrawing from the ring through π* (C16-C17) of the NBO conjugated with π*(C14-C15) resulting with large stabilization energy of 86.64 kJ/mol. Similarly, π* (C16-C17) of the NBO conjugated with π*(C14-C15) resulting with l stabilization energy of 22.916 kJ/mol. Therefore, the maximum energy delocalization takes place in the π*-π* transition (Table 2).

Donor Type ED/e (qi) Acceptor Type ED/e
(qi)
E(2)
kcal/mol
E(j)-E(i)
a.u.
F(i,j)
a.u.
C1-C2 σ 1.97649 C2-C3 σ* 0.02832 0.84 1.05 0.026
C1-C2 σ C3-C14 σ* 0.03625 1.99 1.09 0.042
C1-C2 σ O6-H23 σ* 0.01301 2.95 1.01 0.049
C1-O5 σ 1.99594 C1-C2 σ* 0.05163 1.39 1.46 0.041
C1-O5 π C2-H18 σ* 0.01321 1.12 0.76 0.026
C1-O5 π C2-H19 σ* 0.01189 1.16 0.76 0.027
C2-C3 σ 1.96944 O13-C14 σ* 0.03051 2.02 1.16 0.043
C2-C3 σ C14-C15 π* 0.01736 1.77 0.66 0.033
C2-H18 σ 1.96451 C1-O5 π* 0.20558 4.22 0.52 0.044
C2-H19 σ 1.96637 C1-O5 π* 0.20558 4.43 0.51 0.045
C2-H19 σ C3-C4 σ* 0.02044 3.06 0.9 0.047
C7-C8 σ 1.96563 C12-H28 σ* 0.0316 3.28 1.18 0.056
C7-C12 σ 1.96321 C4-C7 σ* 0.0282 3.23 1.17 0.055
C7-C12 σ C7-C8 σ* 0.02832 6.29 1.4 0.084
C7-C12 σ C8-H24 σ* 0.02054 3.1 1.13 0.053
C7-C12 σ C11-C12 σ* 0.022 6.08 1.4 0.083
C7-C12 π 1.64556 C8-C9 π* 0.33302 21.44 0.31 0.073
C7-C12 π C10-C11 π* 0.33941 23.91 0.31 0.077
C8-C9 σ 1.97189 C4-C7 σ* 0.0282 4.64 1.17 0.066
C8-C9 σ C7-C8 σ* 0.02832 5.9 1.4 0.081
C8-C9 σ C10-H26 σ* 0.02832 2.95 1.14 0.052
C8-C9 π 1.67124 C7-C12 π* 0.34503 24.26 0.32 0.079
C8-C9 π C10-C11 π* 0.33941 21.68 0.31 0.074
C8-H24 σ 1.97602 C7-C8 σ* 0.02832 1.56 1.18 0.038
C8-H24 σ C7-C12 σ* 0.03116 5.4 1.18 0.071
C9-C10 σ 1.97315 C8-C9 σ* 0.02002 4.62 1.4 0.072
C9-C10 σ C8-H24 σ* 0.02054 3.15 1.14 0.054
C10-C11 σ 1.97239 C12-H28 σ* 0.0316 3.27 1.18 0.056
C10-C11 π C7-C12 π* 0.34503 20.49 0.32 0.073
C10-C11 π 1.66997 C8-C9 π* 0.33302 23 0.31 0.076
C10-H26 σ 1.9762 C8-C9 σ* 0.02002 4.19 1.17 0.063
C10-C11 σ 1.97239 C11-C12 σ* 0.022 4.97 1.41 0.075
C10-C11 σ C9-C10 σ* 0.02062 4.59 1.4 0.072
C12-H28 σ 1.95559 C3-H20 σ* 0.04076 8.72 0.92 0.08
C12-H28 σ C7-C8 σ* 0.02832 4.91 1.19 0.068
C12-H28 σ C7-C12 σ* 0.03116 1.87 1.19 0.042
C12-H28 σ C10-C11 σ* 0.02103 3.69 1.18 0.059
C14-C15 π 1.8358 C16-C17 π* 0.32956 16.98 0.29 0.065
C16-C17 σ 1.97174 C15-H29 σ* 0.02248 10.24 1.1 0.095
C16-C17 π 1.83396 C14-C15 π* 0.34609 22.91 0.31 0.078
O5 LP(2) 1.86237 C1-C2 σ* 0.05163 15.76 0.64 0.092
O5 LP(2) C1-O6 σ* 0.09678 32.76 0.63 0.129
O6 LP(2) 1.82122 C1-O5 π* 0.20558 44.87 0.36 0.114
O13 LP(1) 1.94807 C14-C15 σ* 0.02885 5.82 1.21 0.076
O13 LP(1) C16-C17 σ* 0.02036 6.67 1.12 0.078
O13 LP(1) C17-H31 σ* 0.02787 4.12 0.96 0.056
O13 LP(2) 1.63051 C14-C15 π* 0.34609 44.54 0.41 0.122
O13 LP(2) C16-C17 π* 0.32956 44.03 0.39 0.118
C7-C12 π* 0.34503 C4-H22 σ* 0.01576 1.47 0.32 0.046
C14-C15 π* 0.34609 C2-C3 σ* 0.02123 1.56 0.34 0.048
C14-C15 π* C3-C4 σ* 0.02044 1.51 0.35 0.048
C16-C17 π* 0.32956 C14-C15 π* 0.34609 86.64 0.03 0.073

TABLE 2. Second order perturbation theory analysis of Fock matrix in NBO basis of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid (2F4PBA).

Vibrational spectral analysis

The title molecule consists of 31 atoms, so it has 3N-6 i.e. 87 modes of vibration. The Vibrational frequencies are scaled 0.9642 for B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) in order to compensate for the errors arising from the basis set incompleteness and neglect the vibrational anharmonicity. The vibrational assignments were made using the VEDA software. For the IR and Raman spectrum plots Lorentzian band is used. Figure 2 and 3 shows comparative representations of theoretically spectra at B3LYP level of theory along with experimental spectra. The calculated wavenumber, Raman activities, IR intensities are represented in Table 3. Plotting a correlation graph between the scaled frequency and the IR and Raman frequencies represented in Figure 4 shows a corresponding fitting factor of 0.9987 and 0.9998 respectively (Table 3).

Sl. No Frequency (cm-1) Intensity dAssignments (PED ≥ 10%)
Experimental Theoretical IR Raman
FT-IR FT-Raman Unscaled aScaled bRelative Absolute cRelative Absolute
1 - - 3753 3607 73 19 141 42 υOH (100)
2 - - 3299 3170 0 0 202 60 υCH (90)
3 - - 3276 3148 1 0 46 14 υCH (89)
4 3192 (vvw) 3068 (m) 3261 3134 5 1 177 53 υCH (53)
5 - - 3205 3080 17 5 70 21 υCH (95)
6 - - 3193 3069 32 8 61 18 υCH (96)
7 - 3042 (vw) 3185 3061 7 2 62 19 υCH (98)
8 - - 3173 3049 3 1 109 33 υCH (90)
9 - - 3171 3047 11 3 142 43 υCH (73)
10 3000 (vw) 3004 (w) 3131 3009 6 2 35 10 υCH (97)
11 2973 (vw) 2978  (w) 3081 2961 17 4 70 21 υCH (50)
12 2938 (vw) 2940 (m) 3067 2947 2 1 161 48 υCH (58)
13 - 2908 (vw) 3063 2944 6 1 88 26 υCH (87)
14 2843 (m) 2884 (vw) 3036 2918 23 6 161 48 υCH (93)
15 1786 (s) 1726 (vw) 1813 1742 381 100 21 6 υOC (60)
16 1603 (vvw) 1629 (m) 1654 1589 7 2 21 6 υOC (11)+υCC (34)
17 - 1579 (w) 1634 1570 4 1 10 3 υCC(55)
18 1503 (m) - 1632 1568 0 0 64 19 υCC(26)+βCCC(14)
19 1481 (m) 1487 (w) 1541 1481 16 4 14 4 υCC(28)+βHCC(13)
20 1454 (w) 1455 (vw) 1533 1474 11 3 5 2 βHCH(60)
21 - 1438 (vw) 1492 1434 10 3 36 11 βHCH(15)
22 - - 1485 1427 1 0 15 4 βHCH(70)+τHCCC(11)
23 - - 1474 1417 12 3 15 5 βHCH(34)+τHCOC(14)
24 1435 (m) - 1427 1372 1 0 5 2 βHCC(11)+βHCH(43)
25 - 1419 (w) 1386 1332 11 3 12 4 β HCH(53)
26 1417 (m) 1391 (vs) 1377 1323 7 2 42 13 υCC(20)+βHCC(28)
27 1393 (vvw) - 1360 1307 1 0 3 1 βHCH(28)
28 - - 1356 1303 42 11 82 24 υCC(24)+βCCC(10)
29 1346 (m) - 1344 1292 16 4 334 100 υCC(10)+βHCC(10)+βHCH(13)
30 - - 1339 1286 5 1 3 1 υCC(33)+βHCC(18)
31 1302 (s) 1295 (vw) 1294 1244 3 1 4 1 βHCC(34)+τHCCO(22)
32 1264 (w) 1266 (vw) 1266 1217 2 1 4 1 βHOC(12)+τHCCO(19)
33 - - 1245 1197 26 7 4 1 βHOC(12)+βHCC(31)
34 - - 1224 1177 6 1 4 1 υCC(10)
35 1227 (vw) - 1212 1165 45 12 8 2 βHOC(17)
36 - 1195 (vw) 1207 1160 3 1 7 2 υCC(40)
37 1175 (vvw) 1174 (w) 1194 1147 17 4 10 3 βHCC(17)+τHCOC(30)
38 - - 1184 1138 0 0 4 1 υCC(12)+βHCC(11)+τHCOC(23)
39 - - 1165 1119 1 0 7 2 βHCC(64)
40 - - 1150 1106 146 38 4 1 υOC(12)+υCC(12)+βHCC(21)
41 - - 1113 1070 5 1 2 1 βHCH(14)+τHCOC(67)
42 - 1121 (vw) 1100 1057 3 1 15 4 υCC(30)+βHOC(20)
43 1089 (w) 1092 (vw) 1071 1029 10 3 20 6 βCCC(13)
44 1071 (w) 1071 (vw) 1053 1012 4 1 1 0 υCC(14)
45 - - 1038 997 38 10 15 4 υCC(32)
46 1027 (w) - 1030 990 7 2 3 1 υOC(11)+τHCCC(21)
47 - 1004 (w) 1015 975 0 0 2 1 υOC(40)+βCCC(25)
48 - - 1001 962 0 0 3 1 υCC(22)+τHCCO(10)+τHCCC(14)
49 963 (s) 961 (w) 989 951 15 4 1 0 τHCCC(57)
50 923 (m) - 981 943 0 0 1 0 τHCCC(31)
51 894 (w) 895 (w) 934 898 7 2 2 1 βCCC(27)
52 - 865 (vw) 916 880 3 1 1 0 βCCC(52)+τCCCC(10)
53 859 (vw) - 900 865 6 2 1 0 τHCCC(22)
54 - 821 (vw) 891 856 6 2 2 1 τHCCC(76)
55 819 (vw) - 883 849 9 2 3 1 βCCC(34)
56 793 (w) 793 (w) 872 838 0 0 20 6 τHCCC(21)+ωOCOC(23)
57 - - 857 824 0 0 0 0 τCCCC(27)
58 - 761 (vw) 820 788 2 0 1 0 τHCCC(55)
59 741 (s) 741 (m) 810 778 19 5 0 0 υCC(11)
60 - - 758 728 40 10 27 8 βCCC(32)
61 672 (m) - 739 710 68 18 2 1 υOC(12)+βOCO(26)
62 641 (m) 643 (vw) 732 703 27 7 1 0 τHCCC(11)+τCCCC(25)+ωCCCC(15)
63 - - 710 682 28 7 2 1 βCCC(10)+β OCO(22)+βCOC(10)
64 599 (s) - 696 669 13 3 1 0 βCCC(37)+ωCCCC(18)
65 570 (vs) - 657 631 58 15 3 1 τHOCC(74)
66 - - 634 610 0 0 4 1 βOCO(13)+βCCC(15)
67 527 (vs) 523 (w) 610 586 17 5 1 0 τCCCC(15)+ωCCCC(14)
68 - 493 (vw) 607 584 7 2 5 2 βHCC(13)
69 483 (m) - 600 576 35 9 2 1 βCCC(28)
70 - - 562 540 41 11 3 1 βCCC(35)
71 - - 515 495 12 3 3 1 βOCC(10)
72 - 409 (w) 448 430 4 1 1 0 τCCCC(33)+ωCCCC(14)
73 - - 438 421 3 1 2 1 βCCC(11)+τOCCC(13)
74 - - 417 400 0 0 3 1 βCOC(17)+βCCC(17)
75 - 298 (w) 354 341 1 0 7 2 βCCC(14)+βCOC(25)
76 - - 338 325 1 0 0 0 τHCOC(17)+τCCCC(43)
77 - 231(w) 278 267 1 0 3 1 βOCC(25)+βCCC(35)
78 - - 230 221 1 0 2 1 βOCC(29)+βCOC(17)
79 - - 206 198 1 0 1 0 τHCOC(49)
80 - 204 (w) 149 143 0 0 0 0 τHCCC(72)
81 - 161 (w) 120 115 0 0 1 0 βOCC(23)+βCCC(18)+ωCCCC(21)
82 - 146 (m) 72 69 0 0 2 1 τCCCC(30)
83 - 117 (m) 60 57 0 0 0 0 βCCC(27)+τ CCCC(13)+ωCCCC(14)
84 - 85 (vs) 50 48 0 0 1 0 τCOCC(18)
85 - - 33 32 1 0 2 1 τCOCC(52)+τCCCC(10)
86 - - 28 27 0 0 1 0 τCCCC(37)+τOCCC(19)+τCOCC(11)
87 - - 25 24 0 0 4 1 υOC(30)+υCC(15)+βCCC(12)

TABLE 3. Observed and calculated vibrational frequency of 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid.at B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

tsijcs-using

Figure 2: FT-Raman spectra of (+)-(S)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) propanoic acid using DFT/6-311++G (d,p) and experimental data.

tsijcs-experimental

Figure 3: FT-IR spectra of 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid using DFT/6-311++G (d,p) and experimental data.

tsijcs-frequencies

Figure 4: Correlation graph representing scaled, IR and Raman frequencies of 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid.

O-H vibrations: The Oxygen-Hydrogen stretching vibrations are expected in the region 3300-3500 cm-1. These bands are stronger and broader than those of the amine N–H stretches which appear in the same region. For the 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid. Observed at 3753 cm-1 by B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) method. This pure mode shows 100% PED contribution.

C-H vibrations: The aromatic compounds and its derivatives show C-H stretching vibrations generally in the region above 3000 cm-1 for the benzene and less than 3000 cm-1 for non-aromatic compounds. In the experimental frequency, C-H stretching vibrations were observed at 3067 cm-1 to 2882 cm-1 in FT-Raman spectrum and 3180-2852 in the FT-IR spectra. The peak corresponding to C-H stretching vibration at the range 3170.-2918 cm-1 by theoretical method shows excellent agreement with experimental spectral values. The PED corresponding to this vibration contributes to 87-98%.

C-C vibrations: The aromatic ring modes are influenced more by C-C bands. The ring stretching vibrations (C-C) are expected within the region 1300-1000 cm-1. In the present study, the bands which are of different intensities were observed at 1608, 1509, 1489, 1419, 1356, 1079 and 1037 cm-1 in FT-IR spectrum and Raman bands were identified at 1629, 1579, 1488, 1391, 1199 1127, 1078 and 1014 cm-1. The theoretical values were obtained in the range of 1654-1012 cm-1 by B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) method. It shows that the theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental data.

O-C Vibrations: The Oxygen-Carbon stretching modes generally exist in the region 1300-1000 cm-1. The theoretical Oxygen-Carbon stretching vibrations were calculated at1050, 1030, 1015 and 739 cm-1.

Experimental bands observed at 1789, 1608 and 1037 cm-1 in FT-IR and at 1728, 1629 and 1014 cm-1 in FT Raman.

Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP)

The force acting on a proton located at a point through the electrical charge cloud generated through the molecules electrons and nuclei provides the Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) at a given point p(x,y,z) in the vicinity of a molecule. Although the molecular charge distribution remains unperturbed through the external test charge as no polarization occurs, the electrostatic potential of a molecule is a good tool in evaluating the reactivity of a molecule towards positively or negatively charged reactants. The MEP is characteristically pictured through mapping its values onto the surface reflecting the molecules boundaries. Electrostatic potential correlates with dipole moment, electro negativity and partial charges. Molecular electrostatic potential maps elucidate information about the charge distribution of a molecule, relative polarity and electrostatic potential properties of the nucleus and nature of electrostatic potential energy.

MEP is associated to the electronic density and is an expedient descriptor in understanding sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions as well as hydrogen bonding interactions. MEP was calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) optimized geometry. A portion of a molecule that has a negative electrostatic potential is vulnerable to an electrophilic attack greater the negativity, the better. In MEP, maximum negative region represents the site for electrophilic attack indicated by red color while the maximum positive region represents nucleophilic attack indicated in blue color. While regions with the negative potential are over the electronegative Oxygen atom, the regions with the positive potential are over the hydrogen atoms. Potential increases in the order red<orange<yellow<green<blue Figure 5 provides a visual method to understand the relative polarity of the title molecule.

tsijcs-obtained

Figure 5: Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) of obtained by B3LYP/6-311++G( d,p) method.

HOMO and LUMO analysis

The concept of HOMO and LUMO are of fundamental importance as it forms the basis of understating the chemical stability and reactivity of a given molecule. On the basis of chemical hardness, molecules can be classified as hard and soft molecules. Large HOMO-LUMO gap indicates that the title molecule is a hard molecule and minor HOMO-LUMO gap indicates that it is a soft molecule. The molecular stability and hardness are related inversely, i.e. the molecule with the least HOMO-LUMO gap is more reactive. The Ionization Potential (IP) is determined from the energy difference between the energy of the compound derived from electron transfer (Ecation-energy of radical cation) and the respective neutral compound (En) (Figure 6 and Table 4).

Parameter Value
EHOMO (eV) -8.70554
ELUMO (eV) 3.6877
Ionization potential 8.705535
Electron affinity -3.6877
Energy gap (eV) 12.39324
Electronegativity 2.508918
Chemical potential -2.50892
Chemical hardness 6.196618
Chemical softness 0.080689
Electrophilicity index 0.507912

TABLE 4. Calculated energy values of the 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-ButyricAcid (2F4PBA).

tsijcs-orbital

Figure 6: Atomic orbital HOMO-LUMO composition of the frontier molecular orbital of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid (2F4PBA).

equation

The Electron Affinity (EA) is computed from the energy difference between the neutral molecule (En) and the anion molecule (Eanion)

equation

The minimum energy required to promote an electron is given by the energy difference between the orbitals (energy gap) and is therefore the most frequent and important energy transfer mechanism within a system. The orbitals provides information about the electron density which in turn is used in determining which part of the molecule is most actively participating in an energy transfer event.

The calculated quantum chemical parameters such as the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital Energy (EHOMO), the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Energy (ELUMO), energy gap (ΔE), Electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (μ), global hardness (η) and the softness (S) were calculated for the title molecule and tabulated in (Table 4). The concept of these parameters is related to each other, where

Chemical potential (μ) = ½ (ELUMO +EHOMO),

Electronegativity (χ) = −μ = - ½ (ELUMO +EHOMO),

Global hardness (η) = ½ (ELUMO- EHOMO),

Electrophilicity (ω) = μ2 / 2η.

The inverse values of the global hardness are designated as the softness(S), it is given by s Softness (s) = 1/η

The calculated value of electrophilicity index=3.283 describes the biological activity of title compound. Also the bigger the dipole moment, the stronger will be the intermolecular interactions. Correlations have been deduced between electrophilicity of several chemical compounds and reaction rates in biochemical systems and such phenomena as allergic contact dermatitis. The energy of the HOMO and the ionization potential are related and describes the susceptibility of the molecule toward electrophilic attack. The energy of LUMO is directly linked to the electron affinity and illustrates the susceptibility of the molecule toward attack of nucleophiles. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO indicates molecular chemical stability. The mesh diagrams of HOMO and LUMO are given in Figure 6. The positive and negative phase is represented in red and blue colour respectively.

Nonlinear Optical effects (NLO)

The electron correlation can change the value of hyperpolarisability which is very sensitive to the basis sets and level of theoretical approach employed. The polarizability α, the hyper polarizability β and the electric dipole moment μ of title compound are calculated by finite field method using B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) polar=enonly basis set. In the presence of an applied electric field, the energy of a system is a function of the electric field. Polarizability and hyperpolarisability illustrate the response of a system in an applied electric field. This determines the Non Linear Optical properties (NLO) of the system. First hyper polarizability is a third rank tensor that can be defined by 3 x 3 x 3 matrix. The 27 components of the 3D matrix can be reduced to 10 components due to the Klein man symmetry. It can be given in the lower tetrahedral format. It is obvious that the lower part of the 3 x 3 x 3 matrixes is a tetrahedral (Table 5). The components of β are defined as the coefficients in the taylor series expansion of the energy in the external electric field. When the external electric field is weak and homogeneous, this expansion becomes:

Title Enter Values Title Enter Values Title Enter Values
βxxx 82.3961484 αxx 187.4973675 μx 1176805
βxxy 63.6182469 αxy -5.4403967 μy -0.3531568
βxyy 7.1028174 αyy 150.6268697 μz 0.56258
βyyy -138.902403 αxz -26.01046 μ(D) 1176805
βzxx 10.5813665 αyz 1.0303709
βxyz -29.5306966 αzz 151.94731
βzyy 26.8952688 α (a.u) 163.3571824
βxzz 55.4714412 α (e.s.u) 2.421 x 10-23
βyzz -51.4569575 Δα (a.u) 326.7694605
βzzz 44.6223981 Δα (e.s.u) 4.8427 x 10-23
βtot (a.u) 209.3322244
βtot (e.s.u) 1.8085 x 10-30        

TABLE 5. The values of calculated dipole moment μ (D), polarizability (α) and first order hyperpolarisability (β) of 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-ButyricAcid (2F4PBA).

equation

Where

E0 is the energy of the unperturbed molecules

Fα is the field at the origin

μα is the component of dipole moment, is the component of polarizability

βαβγ is the component of first hyper polarizability.

The total static dipole moment μ, the mean polarizability α0, the anisotropy of the polarizability Δα and the mean first hyperpolarisability β0, using the x, y, z components are defined as:

equation

The values of polarizability α, hyper polarizability β and the electric dipole moment μ are given in Table 5. Urea being one of the exemplary molecules used in the study of the NLO properties of the molecular systems. It is often used as a threshold value for comparative purposes. The computed values of μ, α and β for the title molecule are 0.876 D, 2.739 x 10-23 esu and 1.0579 x 10-30 esu respectively. The total molecular dipole moment of the title molecule from B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) basis set is 0.886 D which is less than that of urea (μ(D)=1.373 D).The first order hyper polarizability of the title molecule is 5 times than that of urea (βo= 0.373 x 10-30 esu). The B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) calculated energy gap is E=12.3932eV which is lower than urea (ΔE=6.706 eV). These results indicate that the title compound may be a good candidate of NLO material and can also be considered to be an important class of compound in medical chemistry because if its high electrophilicity index (0.50791).

Mulliken charge distribution and Fukui function

The Mulliken Population Analysis (MPA) is calculated using the Natural Population Analysis of the title molecule (NPA) with B3LYP 6-311++G (d,p) method. The charge and multiplicity are varied in order to compare the variation in the Mulliken charges in each case.

Distribution of positive and negative charges is the important to increasing or decreasing of bond length between the atoms. In the present study, the optimized molecular geometry was employed in single-point energy calculations. The DFT calculations for the anions and cations were done using the ground state with double multiplicity. The individual atomic charges, calculated by MPA have been used to calculate the Fukui functions in Table 6 shows the fk and (sf)k values for the compound, using which one can find the complexities associated with fk values due to the negative values being removed in the (sf)k values.

The calculated Mulliken charge values of the title molecule are listed in Table 6. It can be observed graphically in Figure 7 that the carbon atom C-9 has most positive charge of 0.3910, 0.3870 where the charge and multiplicity are (0,1), (-1,2) and (1,2) respectively. The least positive value is that of H-26 is 0.1120. Similarly the maximum negative charge is that of the carbon atom C-17 with a value of -0.0600, -0.0700 and 0.0230. The least negative value is that of C-7 which is -0.6860.Three oxygen atoms have negative charges and all the hydrogen atoms have positive charges. The result suggests that the oxygen atoms acts as lone pair donor and the charge transfer takes place from O to C due to electron accepting substitutions at that position in the title molecule.

Atom Mulliken atomic charges Fukui functions Local softness
0,1 (N) N +1 (-1, 2) N-1 (1,2) fr+ fr- fr0 sr+ƒr+ sr-ƒr- sr0 ƒr0
C1 -0.2020 -0.2460 -0.1860 -0.0440 -0.0160 -0.0300 -0.0090 -0.0030 -0.0060
C2 -0.2810 0.4610 -0.2670 0.7420 -0.0140 0.3640 0.1550 -0.0090 0.0760
C3 -0.1470 -0.1090 -0.1230 0.0380 -0.0240 0.0070 0.0080 -0.0050 0.0010
C4 0.1340 -0.1600 0.1500 -0.2940 -0.0160 -0.1550 -0.0610 -0.0030 -0.0320
O5 -0.4590 -0.4570 -0.4360 0.0020 -0.0230 -0.0110 0.0000 -0.0050 -0.0020
O6 0.6710 0.8320 0.5910 0.1610 0.0800 0.1200 0.0330 0.0170 0.0250
C7 -0.6860 -0.4600 -0.6340 0.2260 -0.0520 0.0870 0.0470 -0.0110 0.0180
C8 -0.4310 -0.3940 -0.3510 0.0370 -0.0800 -0.0220 0.0080 -0.0170 -0.0050
C9 0.3910 0.4660 0.3930 0.0750 -0.0010 0.0370 0.0160 0.0000 0.0080
C10 -0.4040 -0.4010 -0.3630 0.0030 -0.0420 -0.0190 0.0010 -0.0090 -0.0040
C11 -0.1140 -0.1270 -0.0580 -0.0130 -0.0560 -0.0350 -0.0030 -0.0120 -0.0070
C12 -0.2810 -0.2640 -0.2960 0.0170 0.0150 0.0160 0.0040 0.0030 0.0030
O13 -0.0370 -0.1300 0.0160 -0.0940 -0.0520 -0.0730 -0.0200 -0.0110 -0.0150
C14 -0.3840 -0.3690 -0.3710 0.0150 -0.0130 0.0010 0.0030 -0.0030 0.0000
C15 -0.4600 -0.4650 -0.3590 -0.0050 -0.1010 -0.0530 -0.0010 -0.0210 -0.0110
C16 0.3870 0.3710 0.3800 -0.0160 0.0070 -0.0050 -0.0030 0.0010 -0.0010
C17 -0.0600 -0.0700 -0.0230 -0.0100 -0.0360 -0.0230 -0.0020 -0.0080 -0.0050
H18 0.2740 -0.2040 0.2870 -0.4780 -0.0120 -0.2450 -0.1000 -0.0030 -0.0510
H19 0.2060 -0.4850 0.2380 -0.6900 -0.0320 -0.3610 -0.1440 -0.0070 -0.0760
H20 0.1370 0.0900 0.1410 -0.0470 -0.0040 -0.0250 -0.0100 -0.0010 -0.0050
H21 0.1840 0.1200 0.1920 -0.0640 -0.0080 -0.0360 -0.0130 -0.0020 -0.0080
H22 0.1870 -0.0290 0.2220 -0.2150 -0.0360 -0.1250 -0.0450 -0.0070 -0.0260
H23 0.1440 0.1400 0.2040 -0.0030 -0.0600 -0.0320 -0.0010 -0.0130 -0.0070
H24 0.2140 0.1570 0.2700 -0.0560 -0.0560 -0.0560 -0.0120 -0.0120 -0.0120
H25 0.1490 0.1030 0.1990 -0.0460 -0.0500 -0.0480 -0.0100 -0.0100 -0.0100
H26 0.1120 0.1120 0.1320 0.0000 -0.0200 -0.0100 0.0000 -0.0040 -0.0020
H27 0.1370 0.1230 0.1660 -0.0140 -0.0280 -0.0210 -0.0030 -0.0060 -0.0040
H28 0.1460 0.0890 0.2120 -0.0570 -0.0660 -0.0610 -0.0120 -0.0140 -0.0130
H29 0.1770 0.1360 0.2470 -0.0420 -0.0690 -0.0550 -0.0090 -0.0140 -0.0120
H30 0.1310 0.0780 0.2030 -0.0530 -0.0720 -0.0630 -0.0110 -0.0150 -0.0130
H31 0.1660 0.0910 0.2250 -0.0750 -0.0600 -0.0670 -0.0160 -0.0120 -0.0140

TABLE 6. Mulliken charge distribution, Fukui function and local softness corresponding to (0,1), (-1,2) and (1,2) charge and multiplicity of- 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid (2F4PBA).

tsijcs-charges

Figure 7: The histogram of calculated Mulliken charges of 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid.

The electron density based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions are proposed to clarify the chemical selectivity or reactivity at a particular site of a chemical system. Electron density is a property that contains all the evidence about the molecular system and plays an important role in calculating nearly all the chemical quantities proposed a finite difference approach to compute Fukui function indices i.e. nucleophilic, electrophilic and radical attacks (Table 6).

Fukui indices are reactivity indices that provide information about which atoms in a molecule have a greater tendency to either loose or accept an electron. This information plays a vital role in helping the chemists to interpret which atoms are more prone to undergoing a nucleophilic or an electrophilic attack. The functions are defined as

equation

Where

ρ(r)is the electronic density

N is the number of electrons and r is the external potential exerted by the nucleus.

The Fukui function is a local reactivity descriptor that indicates the ideal regions where a chemical species will change its density with the modification in the number of electrons. Therefore, it indicates the tendency of the electronic density to deform at a given position upon accepting or donating electrons also, it is possible to define the corresponding condensed or aromatic Fukui functions on the kth atom site as,

equation

Where +, -, 0 signs show nucleophilic, electrophilic and radical attack respectively.

In these equations, qk is the atomic charge at kth atomic site for the Neutral (N), anionic (N+1) and cationic (N-1) chemical species. The Fukui function allows analyzing the distribution of the active sites in a molecule for which the value of the function is totally dependent on the type of charges used. To solve the negative Fukui function problem, different attempts have been made by various groups introduced the atomic descriptor to determine the local reactive sites of the molecular system.

Thermodynamic properties

The partition function is one of important parameters of thermodynamics (Figure 8). The partition function associates thermodynamics, spectroscopy and quantum theory. The partition functions are further classified as (i) translational partition function, (ii) rotational partition function, (iii) vibrational partition function and (iv) electronic partition function. The standard statistical thermodynamic functions such as standard heat capacity (CP), standard entropy (S) and standard enthalpy changes (H) were obtained from the theoretical harmonic frequencies on the basis of vibrational analysis at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level using thermo.pl software and listed in Table 7. From the observations in the above Table 6, all the values of Cp, S and H increase with the increase in temperature from 100 K to 1000 K. This is accredited to the enhancement of the molecular vibration. The temperature increases because at a constant pressure, the values of Cp, S and H are equal to the quantity of temperature. The relations between these thermodynamic properties and temperatures are fitted by quadratic equations and the corresponding fitting factor (R2). It was found to be 0.99999, 0.9997 and 0.9994 for entropy, heat capacity, and enthalpy, respectively. The temperature dependence correlation graph is represented in Figure 8 and the corresponding fitting equations are shown below:

T (K) S (J/mol.K) Cp (J/mol.K) ddH (kJ/mol)
100 369.748 109.683 7.861
200 463.247 170.615 21.695
298.15 545.33 247.041 42.123
300 546.863 248.529 42.581
400 629.13 325.693 71.363
500 709.101 391.305 107.323
600 785.299 444.208 149.197
700 857.084 486.744 195.82
800 924.42 521.452 246.286
900 987.551 550.245 299.914
1000 1046.814 574.452 356.182

TABLE 7. Thermodynamics functions of - 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid with different temperature.

tsijcs-enthalpy

Figure 8: Graphs representing dependence of entropy, specific heat capacity and enthalpy on temperature of -3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid (2F4PBA).

equation

The thermodynamic data provides the required data for the further study on the title molecule. Thermodynamic energies according to the relationships of thermodynamic functions and estimate directions of chemical reactions in accordance to the second law of thermodynamics in thermochemical field.

Molecular docking study

Auto Dock suite 1.5.6 (ADT) is graphical front end for running auto dock automated docking software designed to predict how small molecules (substrates or drug candidates) bind to a receptor of known 3D structure. The title compound was selected to be docked into the active site of the protein 4Y95 which belongs to the class of proteins exhibiting the property as a (BTK) Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase expression inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) is a cytoplasmic, non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is expressed in most of the hematopoietic cells and plays an important role in many cellular signaling pathways. B cell malignancies are dependent on BCR signaling, thus making BTK an efficient therapeutic target. The transcription factor BTK plays a significant role in cellular response to systemic oxygen levels in mammals (Figure 9). BTK activity is controlled by a host of post translational modifications: hydroxylation, acetylation and phosphorylation. When a body suffers with hypoxia a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level leading to stiffness. The ligand was docked into the functional sites of the selected protein and minimum docking energy value was examined. Auto dock results designate the binding position and bound conformation of the peptide, together with an approximation of its interaction. Docked conformation which had the lowest binding energy was chosen to study the mode of binding. The molecular docking binding energies (kcal/mol) and inhibition constants (mm) were also obtained and listed in Table 8. The 3-Furan-2-yl-4-Phenyl-Butyric Acid (2F4PBA) ligand interactions with protein 4Y95 is shown in Figure 9. A minimum binding energy of -4.79 kcal/mol was seen in the interaction.

Protein
(PDB ID)
Bonded residues Bond distance
(Å)
Inhibition constant
(μmol)
Binding energy
(kcal/mol)
Intermolecular energy
(kcal/mol)
Reference RMSD
(Å)
4Y95 ASP 2.1 310.06 -4.79 -6.58 110.68
  LYS 1.76        

TABLE 8. Hydrogen bonding and molecular docking with 4Y95, BTC expression inhibitor protein targets.

tsijcs-interactions

Figure 9: (a). Docking and Hydrogen bond interactions of - 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid (2F4PBA) with 4Y9Z protein; (b). Docking and Hydrogen bond interactions of - 3-furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-butyric acid (2F4PBA) with 4Y9Z protein.

Conclusion

The complete vibrational spectral analysis and DFT theoretical calculation were performed for title molecule. The optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) are theoretically determined and compared with the structurally similar molecules. The interaction energy, related to resonance in the molecule, is electron withdrawing from the ring through π*(C7-C8) of the NBO conjugated with π*(C9-C16) resulting with large stabilization energy of 263.92 kJ/mol. The large difference in HOMO and LUMO energy supports the charge transfer model of interaction within the molecule. Finally, the theoretical results showed an acceptable general agreement with the experimental record. The predicted MEP figure revealed the negative and positive regions of the molecule. The computed values of μ, α and β for the title molecule are 0.876 D, 2.739 x 10-23 esu and 1.0579 x 10-30 esu respectively. The first order hyper polarizability of the title molecule is 3 times than that of urea (βo= 0.3728 x 10-30 esu) and the calculated energy gap is E= 12.3932eV which is lower than urea (ΔE= 6.7063 eV). These results indicate that the title compound is a good candidate of NLO material and can also be considered to be an important class of compound in medical chemistry because if its high electrophilicity index (0.5079). The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title molecule are observed with the experimental and calculated vibrational wavenumbers and their PED is noted. Thermodynamic properties in the range from 100 to 1000 K are obtained. The gradients of Cp, S and H increases, as the temperature increases which is attributed to the enhancement of the molecular vibration. The charge and multiplicity are varied in order to compare the variation in the Mullikan charges in each case. The electron density based local reactivity descriptors such as Fukui functions are proposed. The title compound was selected to be docked into the active site of the protein 4Y95 which belongs to the class of proteins exhibiting the property as a Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) expression inhibitor.

References

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