Parası kalmadığı için otobüse binemiyordur ailesi porno izle ona daha yeni para gönderdiği için tekrar porno istemeye utanınca mecburen otostop çekmek için youporn çantasını alarak yol kenarına gelir etekli porno liseli türk kız yol kenarında dururken yanına yaklaşan porno kibar bir gencin onu gideceği yere kadar bırakmak porno izle istemesine çok mutlu olur arabaya bindiklerinde gideceği yer ile porno arabayı kullanan adamın gittiği yer arasında çok mesafe sex izle farkı olduğunu anlayan türk kız bu yaptığı porno indir iyilik karşısında arabada ona memelerini açar porno sapıklaşan adam yol kenarındaki hotelde durarak porno izle üniversiteli otostop çeken türk kızına odada sakso çektirip sikerNanoparticles Made by Microbiology and Their Role in Silencing the Biofilm Signaling Cascade
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Editorial
, Volume: 16( 3)

Nanoparticles Made by Microbiology and Their Role in Silencing the Biofilm Signaling Cascade

*Correspondence:
Skylar StewartEditorial Office, Nanoscience & Nanotechnology: An Indian Journal, UK ; E-mail: [email protected]

Received: May 3, 2022, Manuscript No. tsnsnt-22-64844 ; Published: May 27, 2022

Citation: Stewart S. Nanoparticles Made by Microbiology and their Role in Silencing the Biofilm Signaling Cascade. Nano Tech Nano Sci Ind J. 2022; 16(3):151.

Abstract

The capacity of bacterial cells to adapt to and monitor varied environmental situations is dependent on the density-dependent method of cell-to-cell communication, which is based on contact-associated chemical substance exchange, chemical signaling, and electrical impulse signaling. Biofilm is shown to be the source of the majority of chronic illnesses in people. Biofilm is a syntrophic combination of microbial cells with self-synthesized hydrated polymeric compounds that remain attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces. The formation of biofilm is caused by planktonic bacterial cells adhering to a surface, such as medical equipment and prostheses. Valve endocarditis, chronic otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and wound-associated infections are all complications. Microbiologically manufactured nanoparticles are shown to be more favorable than chemically synthesized counterparts since the former does not require as rigorous requirements as the latter, such as a pure starting material. Microbiologically produced NPs are more economically feasible due to the necessity of ideal conditions and cool temperatures (20–30°C). Furthermore, the inclusion of a biological capping agent on certain micro biogenic nanoparticles, which acts as a protective coating against oxidation, agglomeration, and aggregation, improves stability. As a result, microbiologically produced NPs are frequently regarded as a superior antibacterial treatment alternative.

Introduction

The capacity of bacterial cells to adapt to and monitor varied environmental situations is dependent on the density-dependent method of cell-to-cell communication, which is based on contact-associated chemical substance exchange, chemical signaling, and electrical impulse signaling. Biofilm is shown to be the source of the majority of chronic illnesses in people. Biofilm is a syntrophic combination of microbial cells with self-synthesized hydrated polymeric compounds that remain attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces. The formation of biofilm is caused by planktonic bacterial cells adhering to a surface, such as medical equipment and prostheses. Valve endocarditis, chronic otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and wound-associated infections are all complications [1].

Microbiologically manufactured nanoparticles are shown to be more favorable than chemically synthesized counterparts since the former does not require as rigorous requirements as the latter, such as a pure starting material. Microbiologically produced NPs are more economically feasible due to the necessity of ideal conditions and cool temperatures (20°C-30°C). Furthermore, the inclusion of a biological capping agent on certain micro biogenic nanoparticles, which acts as a protective coating against oxidation, agglomeration, and aggregation, improves stability. As a result, microbiologically produced NPs are frequently regarded as a superior antibacterial treatment alternative [2].

Synthesis of microbial nanoparticles

The adjustable physicochemical properties of Nanoparticles (NPs), such as thermal and electrical conductivities, absorption of light, melting point, and enhancement of catalytic activity by altering the surface-to-volume ratio, have recently revolutionized their applicability in the healthcare sector. Nanotechnology refers to the process of creating any-dimensional particles with a variety of form and size-dependent features. Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), for example, have a wide range of uses in the healthcare arena, including tumour heating, drug transport, medical imaging, chemical sensors, catalysis, wireless electronic logic, computer transistors, memory chips, and antibacterial activity [3].

Microorganism-assisted nanoparticle synthesis mechanism

Microorganisms have synthesized Nanoparticles (NP) from metals, metal oxides, and metalloids both intracellularly and extracellularly, according to the literature. The extracellular process involves the reduction of metal ions for NP synthesis by microbial enzymes and proteins, bacterial or fungal cell wall components, or organic molecules in the culture medium, whereas the intracellular process involves the initial electrostatic attraction of metal ions by carboxyl groups of the microbial cell wall, resulting in metal ions passing through the cells and reduction by intracellular proteins and cofactors to produce NP. Microbial resistance strategies for cellular detoxification include biochemical systems that include microorganism-mediated nanoparticle production [4].

Enzymatic reduction and/or precipitation of inorganic and hazardous ions in the form of nanostructures affect the solubility of these ions. Extracellular and intracellular bio-catalytic synthesis methods have been postulated, with oxidoreductase enzymes (e.g., NADH-dependent nitrate reductase. Quorum Sensing (QS), a non-cytotoxic bacterial cellular communication system, is the sole way to monitor the growth of sessile populations of bacteria within the biofilm. The effectiveness of any chronic infection treatment depends on developing an effective mechanism for delivering medication molecules to the target cells. NPs have a key function to play in the mechanism of QS inhibition, and so might prevent biofilm development. Autoinducers (AI) such as Acetyl Homoserine Lactone (AHL) and other chemical compounds whose production is reliant on S-adenosylmethionine are used by Gram-negative bacteria to communicate. SAM is an amino acid that is necessary for the production of acyl-homoserine lactones [5]. The presence of SAM is required for the synthesis of N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone in E. coli with plasmid linked lux I, according to a research.

REFERENCES

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 52

Nano Science & Nano Technology: An Indian Journal received 52 citations as per Google Scholar report

Indexed In

  • CASS
  • Google Scholar
  • Open J Gate
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Cosmos IF
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • Secret Search Engine Labs

Read More

Recommended Conferences

Probiotics, Nutrition and Gut Microbiome

Chicago, USA

The Obesity and Nutrition Conference 2022

Chicago, USA

Probiotics, Nutrition and Gut Microbiome

Chicago, USA

The Obesity and Nutrition Conference 2022

Chicago, USA
Flyer