44 7460 854 031

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.


, Volume: 21( 1)

Environmental Assessment and Photodegradation of Narmada River Water and Tawa Dam Reservoir by ZnO Nano Catalyst

Arti Singh
Department of Chemistry,
Government Narmada College Narmadapuram,
Madhya Pradesh,
E-mail: artisinghbaghel@gmail.com

Received date: April 12, 2023, Manuscript No. TSIJCS-23-95506; Editor assigned date: April 14, 2023, PreQC No. TSIJCS-23-95506 (PQ); Reviewed date: April 28, 2023, QC No. TSIJCS-23-95506; Revised date: June 27, 2023, Manuscript No. TSIJCS-23-95506 (R); Published date: July 04, 2023, DOI: 10.37532/0972-768X.2023.21(1).433

Citation: Singh A, Choubey ON. Environmental Assessment and Photodegradation of Narmada River water and Tawa Dam reservoir by ZnO Nano Catalyst. Int J Chem Sci. 2023;21(1):433.


Narmada river water is the main source of drinking, irrigation, fish culture and other important activities for central India. Hence the present investigations and plane of work is consisting to observe the chemical and physical constituents of Narmada river water flow. The quality of water with the view to being out a transparence image of the water pollution status of river and assessment of its effect and bringing forth suggestion for improvement. Through study is to be carried out. The sample collection, preservation and pretreatment will be according to standard method of collecting samples at international level i.e. APHA and WHO procedure. Prior to this a through survey will be conducted to know about probable pollution source and other relevant features.


Water pollution; Quality of water; Assessment; Chemical and physical constituents; Pretreatment


Narmada is one of the sacred rivers of India, attracting pilgrims from all parts of the country. It originates from Amarkantak in Shahdol district, at an elevation of 1057 meter above MSL, covers distance of nearly 1312 km and total basin of 98,79,680 sq. km. The Narmada basin is about 1288 km long and 80 km broad running from east to west in Madhya Pradesh, occupies a central position in the country and empties into the Gulf of Cambay below broach [1-3].

In the present study Narmada river and Tawa dam reservoir are selected. One is the example of the floating water and the other is the example of stagnant water. Narmada River is the most important river the Madhya Pradesh, while Tawa dam reservoir is on the Tawa River in central India. It is located in Itarsi of Narmadapuram district of Madhya Pradesh state, above Betul district [4-6].

Due to urbanization and industrialization, environmental pollution is increasing day by day. The disposal of city waste, sewage and industrial effluents is becoming a major problem. The present study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of man induced environmental changes on the water quality through variation in the chemical and microbiological properties at different locations [7].

Materials and Methods

The river Narmada has been surveyed throughout the year, over a distance of about four sampling sites were selected. In Narmada site first is situated at “Sethani ghat” second site is the “Paramhansh ghat” third site is the “Vivekananda ghat” and forth is the “Post office ghat”. Here many people take bath and wash their cloths daily and also where continuous discharge of domestic sewage of the city is going on. Tawa dam reservoir site is situated site A5 and site A6 [8].

The various physico chemical and biological parameters were determined as per methods suggested by APHA. Temperature, pH and dissolve oxygen were recorded immediately after collection of samples at the sites, while other parameters were analyzed in laboratory within 24 hours samples for the planktons were collected simultaneously and sedimentations were made in glass jars, after adding 10 ml of acid Lysol’s solution for preservation. After 24 hours, the supernatant was discharged then remaining 25 ml of sediments was taken on glass slide and plankton’s number counted under the microscope. Their estimation was made by drop method [9,10].


The fundamentals of nanotechnology are that the properties of substances change significantly when their size is reduced to the nanometer range. When a bulk material is divided into small particles in one are more dimensions in the nanometer range or even smaller, the individual particles show unexpected properties that are completely different from those of the bulk material. Bulk solids have continuous physical properties.

Ultrafine particles, nanoparticles are between 1 nm to 100 nm in size. The properties that distinguish nanoparticles from bulk material generally develop at a critical length of less than 100 nm. Nanoparticles may or may not have size related properties that are significantly different from those seen in fine particles or bulk solids.

ZnO nano catalyst

Nano materials are largely due to the large surface area of the materials, which dominates the contributions of the small mass of the material E. Roduner.

The distinguishing in energy between the conduction band and the valance band is called the band gap. ZnO haves valence band is 3, conduction band is -0.2, band gap 3.2(eV) and band gap wavelength (nm) is 387.

It is a white powder that is almost insoluble in water. ZnO semiconductor has several advantageous properties: Good transparency, high electron mobility, large band gap, strong luminescence at room temperature etc. Zinc oxide is non-toxic and skin compatible, making it a suitable additive for textiles and surfaces in contact with humans. It is also used as a catalyst for the synthesis of methanol. Increasing the surface area of zinc oxide at the nanoscale compared to larger powders.


The basic physical properties of mass and nano ZnO differ significantly; the study of the photo luminescent properties of ZnO confirmed that quantum confinement increases the energy of band the gap of ZnO (Figures 1-3). The change in band gap energy of ZnO nano particles also shows such size dependence. Improving surface conditions by making ZnO nanorods smaller is also well established (Tables 1 and 2).


FIG 1: Energy between the conduction band and the valance band.


FIG 2: The basic physical properties of mass and nano ZnO.


FIG 3: The study of the photo luminescent properties of ZnO.

S. no. Parameters Site I Site II Site III Site IV Site V Site VI
1 pH 8.2 8.3 8.0 8.5 7.9 8.1
2 Conductivity 0.18 0.16 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.17
3 TA (mg/L) 161 164 162 180 172 168
4 TH (mg/L) 232 222 231 198 228 226
5 DO (ppm) 6.4 5.9 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.3
6 BOD (ppm) 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.1 4.2
7 COD (mg/L) 188 176 181 177 182 186
8 TDS (mg/L) 327 329 341 325 333 336
9 TSS (mg/L) 839 826 822 835 813 802
10 Chloride (mg/L) 374 372 366 379 375 373
11 Fluoride (mg/L) 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5
12 Ca (mg/L) 276 268 271 273 274 272
13 Mg (mg/L) 19.23 18.60 18.21 19.11 19.33 19.22
14 SO4 (mg/L) 16.21 16.11 16.22 16.51 16.31 16.21
15 NO3 (mg/L) 28.16 28.21 28.01 29.01 28.65 28.24
16 Na (mg/L) 57.02 56.00 56.78 57.00 56.08 57.1
17 K (mg/L) 4.81 4.80 4.30 4.33 4.77 4.80
18 E. coli (CFU/100) 58000 57500 57800 58100 57600 57500

TABLE 1. Physico chemical parameters at sampling sites in river Narmada and Tawa dam reservoir.

S. no. Parameters Site I Site II Site III Site IV Site V Site VI
1 pH 7.1 7.2 7.0 7.5 7.1 7.4
2 Conductivity 0.12 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12
3 TA (mg/L) 132 128 126 131 132 133
4 TH (mg/L) 203 196 201 203 204 202
5 DO (ppm) 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.3
6 BOD (ppm) 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2
7 COD (mg/L) 161 156 158 160 162 163
8 TDS (mg/L) 368 358 362 361 357 363
9 TSS (mg/L) 745 712 743 702 729 724
10 Chloride (mg/L) 328 322 323 325 316 314
11 Fluoride (mg/L) 0.52 0.48 0.47 0.51 0.52 0.53
12 Ca (mg/L) 241 231 236 235 239 242
13 Mg (mg/L) 17.22 17.02 17.17 17.3 17.33 17.23
14 SO4 (mg/L) 14.12 14.21 14.20 14.31 13.80 14.00
15 NO3 (mg/L) 10.48 10.22 10.11 10.52 10.34 10.50
16 Na (mg/L) 52.32 52.01 51.55 52.02 52.55 52.44
17 K (mg/L) 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.02 4.00 4.33
18 E. coli (CFU/100) 21400 20200 21200 21100 23100 23200

TABLE 2. After photodegradation by ZnO nanocatalyst physico chemical parameters at sampling sites in river Narmada and Tawa dam reservoir.


The survey of the river water resources includes the identification and characterization of sites, which cause the pollution problems.


Several physico chemical and biological parameters and their variability have been studies in relation to the pollution of Narmada river water and Tawa dam reservoir. The chemical analysis showed that polluted sites contained high values of chloride, total hardness, alkalinity, E. coli and Coli from count, but very low dissolve oxygen, which indicated a high pollution load.


Photocatalytic water treatment by nano catalyst is a hot topic for pollutant degradation. ZnO has a unique property for above work because it has band gap 3.2(eV) and band gap wavelength (nm) is 387, low operating cost, simple morphology design, nontoxic and have a band gap energy.


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 9398

International Journal of Chemical Sciences received 9398 citations as per Google Scholar report

Indexed In

  • Google Scholar
  • Open J Gate
  • China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
  • Cosmos IF
  • Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research

View More