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, Volume: 19( 12)

Characterization of the Extracted Humic Acid

Mitu Liviu Department of General Agronomy, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Romania, E-mail:

Received: December 03, 2021; Accepted: December 17, 2021; Published: December 24, 2021

Citation: Liviu M, Characterization of the Extracted Humic Acid. Int J Chem Sci. 2021;19(12):418.


Humus is a composite of a complex polydisperse polymer consisting of various structures and composite regions, widely distributed in natural soil, water and minerals. It is mainly composed of C, O, H, and N, where the fraction of organic carbon is usually between 40 and 60%. (1â??4) According to their source, humus can be divided into soil humus, aquatic humus, and mineral humus. According to its composition and composition, humus can be divided into fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), and humin. Of the three components of humus, FA is the alkali- and soluble acid, HA is the soluble component of alkali and soluble acid, and humin is the insoluble residue.


There is a coordinated The FA has a low weight of only a few hundred Daltons. It can have a wide range of pH values. Due to its unique physical and chemical properties, the FA has been used in a variety of fields including agriculture, medicine, the environment, and building materials. In agriculture, the FA can significantly improve the morphological features of plants and their crop yields and grasses. In addition, iron-containing FA chelation can regulate iron absorption by plants, thereby affecting plant growth and metabolism.

As a donor or receiver with various biomedical functions, the FA can promote electrochemical balance, stimulate molecules that control immune cells, and induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Compared with HA, the FA contains a very diverse range of active groups, has a high degree of degradation, and is stable in the chemical and environmental composition of other heavy metals. FA-based electrospun hard carbon nanofibers (PF-CNF) have been used as negative electrodes for sodium ion batteries, where cycling 100 times to 100 mA · g-1 current density has resulted in a high capacity retention rate -91%; this has shown that FA-based carbon nanomaterials have excellent cycling performance. The most common method of extraction of FA and HA is alkaline solubility and acid rain. First, the humus in the raw material is extracted by NaOH or KOH, and then the pH is adjusted with HCl or HNO3 to obtain an FA solution.

However, due to the introduction of high concentrations of Na + and K + in the extraction process, it is difficult to find pure FA in this way. Additionally, as large amounts of acid and alkali are used in this process, it is not a natural process. The natural material issue has been used for the integration of the FA, with a structure similar to the natural FA, but as the process is complex and difficult to obtain resources, this method is not yet popular. Recent research has shown that coal oxidations increases FA and HA yield, and the macromolecular structure of coal is significantly affected by the free radical chain reaction in the oxidation process. Among the oxidation methods, nitric acid did not increase the HA yield from 20 to 85%, but also found FA and HA with low molecular weight and low aromatics.

However, treatment with nitric acid is expensive, and pre-oxidation with H2O2 causes some of the weaker bonds in coal to break down and present the functional groups of oxygen; this is similar to the effect of nitric acid treatment, but the higher concentration of H2O2 is not consistent with the formation of FA and HA.


The authors are grateful to the journal editor and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions.

Declaration for Conflicts of Interests

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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