Potential Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals [Cd, Cu and Fe] Concentrations in some Imported Frozen Fish Species Consumed in Nigeria

Author(s): P. O. Ukoha, N. R. Ekere, U. V. Udeogu and V. E. Agbazue

The concentrations of three heavy metals [Cd, Cu and Fe] were determined in three species of imported frozen fish widely consumed in Nigeria. Appropriate weights of the dried pulverized fish samples were digested following FAO/SIDA wet digestion method with HNO3 and H2O2 [1 : 1]. The accuracy and precision of the determinations in the study were evaluated using LOD, LOQ and certified standard reference material [DORM-1 for Dog fish]. The human health risk of consumption of the fishes was assessed by calculating the daily exposure rates (D), hazard quotients (HQ) and the total hazard indices (THI) of the metallic toxicants. The chemical analysis results showed that the concentration levels of the elements are of the ranges of 0.001-0.150 mg/Kg; 1.05-12.06 mg/Kg and 8.21 to 85.06 mg/Kg for Cd, Cu and Fe, respectively. Also results of the potential health risk assessment showed that the total hazard index of all the toxicants indicated no risk status from the consumption of the fish species studied.

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