Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites of polycaprolactone-nano hydroxyapatite (PCL-nHA) for bone tissue engineering

Author(s): S.Uma Maheshwari, Renu Jose, M.Abhilash, S.Vasanth Kumar

Natural bone consists of calcium phosphate with nanometer-sized needle like crystals of approximately 5-20 nm width by 60 nm length. Nanophase calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of natural tissues; can enhance osteoblast adhesion and resorption with long-term functionality of tissue engineered implants. Nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) possesses exceptional biocompatibility and bioactivity properties with respect to bone cells and tissues. Polymer-ceramic nanocomposites fabricated from electrospun nanofibrous scaffold coated/incorporated with nanoceramic material prove to be an excellent scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The morphology of nanofibres mimics the extracellular matrix of natural tissue organization which further increases the adhesion and proliferation of bone cells. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a bioresorbable polymer with potential applications for bone and cartilage repair. Nanocomposites can also be prepared by sintering polymeric nanospheres to make a scaffold and then coat it with the hydroxyapatite. In the present study nanofibrous scaffolds of polycaprolactone are prepared with electrospinning technique with 10wt%, 15 wt% concentration using chloroform as organic solvent. The characterization was done with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The polycaprolactone microspheres were prepared using water in oil-in-water emulsions. The characterization was carried out using scanning electron microscopy. Nanophase hydroxyapatite was prepared by wet precipitation route with calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid as precursors. Characterization was done using transmission electronmicroscope (TEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The combination of (PCL-nHA) nanocomposite will prove to be an excellent scaffold for bone regeneration and repair.

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