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Novelty in saponification, a chemistry of soap manufacturing process

Author(s): Ike, Francis Ekene

Saponificatoon is the hydrolysis of fats and oils with caustic alkali to yield propane 1, 2,3 triol and the corresponding sodium or potassium salt of the corresponding fatty acids. Vegetable oils or palm oil or groundnut oil are esters formed from a long chain organic acid known as octadecanoic and propane 1,2,3 triol an alkanol containing three OH groups in the molecule. When palm oil is boiled with an alkali such as sodium hydroxide solution, it breaks down releasing the organic acid and the alkanol. This is known as Saponificatoon. The organic ester is immediately neutralized by the sodium hydroxide solution to form the sodium salt of the organic acid which is SOAP. SOAP is a substance able to mix with both oil and water, used for cleaning, often in the form of a solid bar or in liquid form, derived from fats or made synthetically. Novelty In Soap Manufacturing Process The manufacturing process of making a bar soap are explain as follows. Liquid and solid ingredients are combined in a large tank and mixed into a thick suspension called a slurry. The slurry is pumped to a tower and atomized through small nozzles under pressure to produce small drops which fall through a current of hot air, drying them into small granules or pellets. The pellets pass to a finishing line where they are blended with additional ingredients such as fragrances and coolants. The mixture is sent through collar for blending to a uniform texture. It is then extruded cut into bars and stamped into its final shape.

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