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Effect of sonication in combination with photocatalytic oxidation of the medication carbamazepine

Author(s): Peter Jonas

Using a BiVO4 catalyst supported by Ag/AgCl, photocatalytic and sono-photocatalytic oxidation of the medication carbamazepine was accomplished satisfactorily. To achieve this, the central composite design process was first used to enhance photocatalytic oxidation, and then the synergistic effects of sonication were examined. To degrade wastewater containing carbamazepine (CBZ), low frequency (20 kHz) probe type and high frequency (850 kHz) plate type sonication in pulse and continuous modes were investigated. . The high frequency sonication device was used to examine the pulse duties of 1:5 and 5:1 (on:off) in the sono-photocatalytic oxidation of CBZ. In the sono-photocatalytic oxidation of CBZ, the effects of frequency and power density, estimated by calorimetry by varying amplitudes, were studied. At the ideal circumstances of 5 ppm CBZ initial concentration with 1.5 g/L of catalyst loading and an alkaline pH of 10, at the conclusion of 4 hours of photocatalytic reaction under visible LED light irradiation, complete carbamazepine removal was accomplished. In a treatment period of only 60 minutes, both low frequency and high frequency sonication devices increased the photocatalytic efficiency. 

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